Urinary system consist of two kidney, two uretus,one urinary bladder,and one urethra.it is one of the most important system of our body, that helps to filter water and other substance from our body.it is very important to know how urinary system works.so lets study about urinary system.
Nephrology is the scientific study of the anatomy ,physiology and pathophysiology of the kidney.
UROLOGY-the branch of medicine that deals with the male and female urinary system and the male reproductive system is called urology.
A physician who specializes in urology branch of medicine is called a urologist.
Function of the urinary system
1) Kidney regulate blood volume and composition help to regulate blood pressure ,PH and glucose level,produce two hormone (calcitriol and erythropoietin) and excrete waste in urine.
2) Ureters transport urine from kidneys to urinary bladder.
3) urinary bladder stores stores urine and expel it into urethra.
4) Urethra discharge urine from body.
Function of the kidney
List the function of the kidney
Function of kidneys include the following.
1)REGULATION OF BLOOD IONIC COMPOSITION.
Kidney help to regulate the blood level f several ions,such as sodium ion(na+),potassium ion(k+),calcium ion(ca2+),chloride ion(cl-) and phosphate ion.
2)REGULATION OF BLOOD PH.
Kidney excrete a variable amount of hydrogen(h+) ion into urine.
And conserve bicarbonate ion,which an imp buffer of h+ in blood both
these activity help help regulate blood PH.
3)REGULATION OF BLOOD VOLUME.
Kidney adjust blood volume by conserving or eliminating water in
urine.increase volume-increase blood pressure;decrease blood volumedecrease
5)REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE.
Kidney helps to regulate blood pressure by secreating the enzyme
Renin activates renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway.
6)PRODUCTION OF HARMONE.
Kidney produce two harmone
a)calcitriol-active form of vit.d,help to regulate calcium homeostatsis.
b)Erythropiotin-stimulate production of red blood cell.
7)REGULATION OF BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL
Like liver,kidney synthesis new glucose molecule and release into blood
to help maintain a normal blood glucose level.
8)EXCRETION OF WASTE AND FOREIGN
Kideny help excrete waste sub that have no useful function in body.
ANATOMY AND HISTOLOGY OF THE KIDNEY.
1) The paired kidney are reddish in colour.
2) Kidney is bean shaped organs.
3) Location-just above the waist between peritoneum and the
posterior wall of abdomen.
4) Kidney located between level of last thoracic and 3rd lumbar
5) Right kidney is slightly lower than left.
EXTERNAL ANATOMY OF KIDNEY
A typical adult kidney-
1) Size;- 10-12cm long 5-7cm wide 3cm thick.
2)kidney has mass of 135-150g.
-The concave medial border of each kidney faes vertebral column.
-Near center of concave border is an indentation called renal hilum.
Renal hilum through which ureter,nerve blood vessel,lymphatic
vessels,emerges from kidney.
3)kidney surrounded by three layer.
Deep layer smooth,transport sheet of dense irregular connective tissue that
continuous with outer coat of uterus.
-it help to maintain shape of kidney.
b)ADIPOSE CAPSULE-MIDDLE LAYER
-is a mass of fatty tissue.
It protect the kidney from trauma.
-Super facial layer
-thin layer of dense connective tissue.
-Nephron are functional units of kidney.
-each nephrons consist of two parts
a) renal corpuscle-blood plasma is filter.
B)renal tubule-filtered fluid passes.
For production of the urine ;nephron and collecting
ducts perform 3 basic process.
In first step of urine production water and most solutes in blood plasma move
across the wall of glomerular capsule and then into renal tubule.
Filtered fluid flows through the renal tubule and through collecting duct.
Tubule cell reabsorb 99% of filtered water and many useful solute.
Water and solutes returns into blood
(reabsorption means returns of sub to blood stream)
-Filtered fluid flows through the renal tubules and collecting duct.
-Renal tubule and duct cell secrete other material ,such as waste,drug and
excess ion into fluid.
-Tubular secretion remove a sub from the blood.
here we know all about urinary system in very simple language so that you can easily understand the process and important notes about urinary system.hope you like our content .if any content you needed please comment us.