Demography & family planning
- Demos → People
- Graphos → Write/record/drawing
Demography – It is the branch of science that deals with the statistical study of size structure & distribution of populations along with the spatial and temporal changes in them in response to birth, migration, aging & death.
Demographic– Demographic is analysis can be applied to whole societies or to groups defined by criteria such as education, nationality, religion & ethnicity in academia, demography is often regarded as a branch of either anthropology economics or sociology.
Study of the human population concerning their:
- Size: (Total no. of persons in a specific area in sp. time)
- Composition: breakdown according to age, sex, like racy level, income, etc.
- Distribution: arrangement of people in a space of a given time eg. urban%, rural %, etc)
- Structure: distribution among age, sex grouping, etc. e.g. 〈5 years or 〉65 years male? female? etc.
- Changes/behavior within them: positive growth, negative growth, zero growth, etc.
- Social effects
- Economic effects
- Health factors
The maximum sustainable size of a resident population in a given ecosystem.
Rate of any demographic event computed for an entire population.
- New migration
- Population growth rate
- Population doubling time
- Replacement level fertility ( zero pop, growth)
- The momentum of population growth
- Demographic transition
Actual reproductive performance
the behavior of a woman/couple
It is generally confined to women.
- Crude birth rate (CBR)
- General fertility rate (GFR)
- Age, the specific fertility rate (ASFR)
- Total fertility rate (TFR)
- Gross reproduction rate (GRR)
- Net reproduction rate (NRR)
Physiology capability (potential) of a woman to reproduce.
Varies by age, nutrition & health
Experience of a population in terms of deaths.
CBR = No. of live birth in a year / MID-Year population × 100
GRR = No. of live birth in a year/No. of females ages (15-49years) × 1000
ASFR = No. of live birth in the year to women age/ (No. of women aged – × ) × 1000
(average no of children a woman would have if she was to pass through her reproductive years bearing children at same rates as the women now in each age group)
- The fertility rate is high at 20-30 years of age in all countries.
5 stages through which a nation passes during the transition.
- High stationary stage – [ ↑ CBR & CDR e.g. amazon valley]
- Early expanding stage – [ ↑ CBR & ↓ cdr e.g. banglodesh]
- Late expanding stage – [ ↓ CBR & ↓ CDR e.g. india/pakistan]
- Low stationary stage – [ ↓ CBR & CDR e.g. swedeno]
- Declining state – [ ↓↓ CBR & ↓CDR e.g. germany]
A took at global demographic situation suggest that some countries have passed through high fertility & mortality condition both aiming at low growth of population. these two conditions are referred to as old & new balance with an in-between period of imbalance as described below.
Family planning to regulate the number & spacing of children in a family through the practice of contraception or other methods of birth control.
Family planning methods
Definition: a way of thinking & living that is adopted voluntarily upon the basis of knowledge, attitudes & responsible decisions by individuals & couples, in order to promote the health & welfare of the family group & thus contribute effectively to the social development of the country.
Criteria for ideal contraceptive
- It should be safe for use means free from kind of side effects.
- It should reliable.
- It should be easy to administer
- It should be cost-effective.
- It should be culturally feasible & acceptable.
Methods of contraception
- Spacing methods
- Natural methods
- Barrier methods
- physical barrier methods
- chemical barrier methods
- intrauterine devices
- hormonal methods
- postconceptional methods
- Help in the prevention of pregnancy as long as they are used.
- These methods can help in the timing & spacing of pregnancies, preventing unwanted children. these methods are temporary methods.
- Natural methods do not involve the use of any man-made devices.
- These methods are useful for the timing & spacing of pregnancies.
it is again of two:
a) progestagen only injectable: there are two preparations that are available.
- DMPA (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate)
- NET-EN (norethisterone andante) both contain synthetic progestogen.
- progestogen prevents ovulation.
- Hormonal contraception refers to the birth control methods that act on the endocrine system.
- The action varies from one type to another.
- Uses synthetic progesterone & estrogen.
Combined injectable contraceptives
- These contain progestogen & estrogen contraceptive action is similar to that of progestogen-only injectable.
- The injection is given once a month three days early or three days late.
- It is contraindicated in pregnancy or has any other problem like diabetes with complications, a vascular disorder such as malignancy.
It is easy to administer highly effective & irreversible do not interfere with lactation & does not cause any effect on the infant.
Abnormal uterine bleeding, malignancy of the genital tract suspected, malignant growth & cancer breast.
Classification of hormonal methods
- oral pills
- combined pills
- progesterone only pills
- post-coital pills
- once a month pills
- male pills
a) combined pills
- content: contains estrogen & progesterone
- mode of action: inhibits ovulation of ovum by blocking the gonadotropin from the pituitary gland.
- The progestogen alters the cervical mucosa which prevents entry of sperms into the genital canal makes the uterine inner lining unsuitable for implantation of a fertilized egg.
- An ideal male contraceptive pill should decrease sperm count does not affect testosterone levels.
- e.g. gossypol- derivation pf cottonseed oil.
- produces oligospermia or azospermia.
- 10% of men because of permanently azoospermia after taking it for 6 months.
- not on practice.
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