Demography & family planning | Complete Notes

Demography & family planning

HECP

Demography & family planning

  • Demos → People
  • Graphos → Write/record/drawing

Demography – It is the branch of science that deals with the statistical study of size structure & distribution of populations along with the spatial and temporal changes in them in response to birth, migration, aging & death.

Demographic– Demographic is analysis can be applied to whole societies or to groups defined by criteria such as education, nationality, religion & ethnicity in academia, demography is often regarded as a branch of either anthropology economics or sociology.


Study of the human population concerning their:

  1. Size: (Total no. of persons in a specific area in sp. time)
  2. Composition: breakdown according to age, sex, like racy level, income, etc.
  3. Distribution: arrangement of people in a space of a given time eg. urban%, rural %, etc)
  4. Structure: distribution among age, sex grouping, etc. e.g. 〈5 years or 〉65 years male? female? etc.
  5. Changes/behavior within them: positive growth, negative growth, zero growth, etc.

Population studies

  • Social effects
  • Economic effects
  • Health factors
  • Geographics
  • Environmental

Carrying capacity:

The maximum sustainable size of a resident population in a given ecosystem.


Crude rate:

Rate of any demographic event computed for an entire population.

  • Fertility
  • Morality
  • New migration
  • Urbanization
  • Population growth rate
  • Population doubling time
  • Replacement level fertility ( zero pop, growth)
  • The momentum of population growth
  • Demographic transition
  • Census

Fertility

Actual reproductive performance

the behavior of a woman/couple

It is generally confined to women.

Original rates

  • Crude birth rate (CBR)
  • General fertility rate (GFR)
  • Age, the specific fertility rate (ASFR)

Derived rates

  • Total fertility rate (TFR)
  • Gross reproduction rate (GRR)
  • Net reproduction rate (NRR)

Fecundity:

Physiology capability (potential) of a woman to reproduce.

Varies by age, nutrition & health


Mortality:

Experience of a population in terms of deaths.

CBR = No. of live birth in a year / MID-Year population × 100

GRR = No. of live birth in a year/No. of females ages (15-49years) × 1000

ASFR = No. of live birth in the year to women age/ (No. of women aged – × ) × 1000

(average no of children a woman would have if she was to pass through her reproductive years bearing children at same rates as the women now in each age group)

  • The fertility rate is high at 20-30 years of age in all countries.

Demographic cycle

5 stages through which a nation passes during the transition.
  1. High stationary stage – [ ↑ CBR & CDR e.g. amazon valley]
  2. Early expanding stage – [ ↑ CBR & ↓ cdr e.g. banglodesh]
  3. Late expanding stage – [ ↓ CBR & ↓ CDR e.g. india/pakistan]
  4. Low stationary stage – [ ↓ CBR & CDR e.g. swedeno]
  5. Declining state – [ ↓↓ CBR & ↓CDR e.g. germany]


Demographic transition

A took at global demographic situation suggest that some countries have passed through high fertility & mortality condition both aiming at low growth of population. these two conditions are referred to as old & new balance with an in-between period of imbalance as described below.

Family planning

Family planning to regulate the number & spacing of children in a family through the practice of contraception or other methods of birth control.

Family planning methods

Definition: a way of thinking & living that is adopted voluntarily upon the basis of knowledge, attitudes & responsible decisions by individuals & couples, in order to promote the health & welfare of the family group & thus contribute effectively to the social development of the country.

Criteria for ideal contraceptive

  1. It should be safe for use means free from kind of side effects.
  2. It should reliable.
  3. It should be easy to administer
  4. It should be cost-effective.
  5. It should be culturally feasible & acceptable.

Methods of contraception

  • Spacing methods
  • Natural methods
  • Barrier methods

Barrier methods

  1. physical barrier methods
  2. chemical barrier methods
  3. intrauterine devices
  4. hormonal methods
  5. postconceptional methods

Terminal methods

  1. Vasectomy
  2. Tubectomy
Spacing methods
  1. Help in the prevention of pregnancy as long as they are used.
  2. These methods can help in the timing & spacing of pregnancies, preventing unwanted children. these methods are temporary methods.
Natural methods
  1. Natural methods do not involve the use of any man-made devices.
  2. These methods are useful for the timing & spacing of pregnancies.

Injectable contraceptives

it is again of two:

a) progestagen only injectable: there are two preparations that are available.

  1. DMPA (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate)
  2. NET-EN (norethisterone andante) both contain synthetic progestogen.
  3. progestogen prevents ovulation.

Hormonal contraception

  1. Hormonal contraception refers to the birth control methods that act on the endocrine system.
  2. The action varies from one type to another.
  3. Uses synthetic progesterone & estrogen.

Combined injectable contraceptives

  1. These contain progestogen & estrogen contraceptive action is similar to that of progestogen-only injectable.
  2. The injection is given once a month three days early or three days late.
  3. It is contraindicated in pregnancy or has any other problem like diabetes with complications, a vascular disorder such as malignancy.

Merits

It is easy to administer highly effective & irreversible do not interfere with lactation & does not cause any effect on the infant.

Contraindications

Abnormal uterine bleeding, malignancy of the genital tract suspected, malignant growth & cancer breast.


Classification of hormonal methods

  1. oral pills
  2. combined pills
  3. progesterone only pills
  4. post-coital pills
  5. once a month pills
  6. male pills

Oral pills

a) combined pills

  • content: contains estrogen & progesterone
  • mode of action: inhibits ovulation of ovum by blocking the gonadotropin from the pituitary gland.
  • The progestogen alters the cervical mucosa which prevents entry of sperms into the genital canal makes the uterine inner lining unsuitable for implantation of a fertilized egg.

Male pill:

  • An ideal male contraceptive pill should decrease sperm count does not affect testosterone levels.
  • e.g. gossypol- derivation pf cottonseed oil.
  • produces oligospermia or azospermia.
  • 10% of men because of permanently azoospermia after taking it for 6 months.
  • not on practice.

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