• Historical background and development of profession of pharmacy:-
➢ The Greek is the 1st promoter of the pharmacy profession. Hence, the
name pharmacy is derived from the Greek word “pharmacon” means
medicine of drug.
➢ In 1939 Prof. M.L.SCHROFF started the Indian journal of pharmacy.
➢ To regulate the manufacture, import, distribution and sale of drug, the
drug act of 1950 was adopted.
➢ Indian drug and pharmaceutical limited was set up by the government in
1964 to provide a boost to production of bulk drugs and formulations.

In relation to pharmacy education:-The pharmacy profession in India was
marked by the first class of the chemist and druggist conducted at the Madras
medical college in the year 1870 to train students to gain skills
in pharmacy practice
Industry and organization: The allopathic system of medicines were
introduced in India during the British rule and were used by the ruling class
only. Later, in 19th century the medicines were also used by the common
people. In the beginning the medicines were imported from Europe and later
they were manufactured in India itself. The 1st pharmaceutical industry was
Established in Kolkata, West Bengal in 1901 by Prafulla Chandra Ray named
“Bengal Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals”
Pharmacy as a career: – Pharmacy graduates are involved in the research
and development of new therapeutics as well as ensure their manufacturing
quality control. There is a high demand for pharma graduates in sectors like –
healthcare, research, manufacturing, medical marketing, pharmacovigilance
Pharmacopoeias: – The 1st pharmacopeia was introduced in 1955.
A pharmacopoeia is a legally binding collection of standards and quality
specifications for medicines used in a country or region. … The role of a
modern pharmacopoeia is to furnish quality specifications for
active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), FPPs and general requirements

a. IP = Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission (IPC) is an autonomous
institution of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare which sets
standards for all drugs that are manufactured, sold and consumed in
Headquarters: Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
b. BP = The British Pharmacopoeia (BP) is the national pharmacopoeia of
the United Kingdom. It is an annually published collection of quality
standards for UK medicinal substances, which is used by individuals and
organizations involved in pharmaceutical research, development,
manufacturing and testing.
Headquarters: London, United Kingdom.
c. USP = U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) is an independent, scientific, nonprofit
organization that improves public health by setting standards for the
identity, strength, quality, and purity of medicines, dietary supplements,
and food ingredients that are manufactured, distributed and consumed
Headquarters: Rockville, Maryland.
d. Extra pharmacopoeia = The Extra Pharmacopoeia, originally produced
by William Martindale in 1883 and published by the Pharmaceutical
Society of Great Britain which contains information on the drugs
presently used in Great Britain. This edition has been entirely revised,
reset, and increased in size because of the addition both of new drugs
and of new material on drugs which were already described in previous

• Introduction:-
Drug = Drug is defined as an agent or substance which is intended for
diagnosis, mitigation, treatment, cure and prevention of disease in human
beings or animals
Dosage forms are means by which the drug molecules (API) are delivered to
site of action within the body to produce optimum desired effect and
minimize adverse effect.
Dosage forms is also called as a unit doses which are pharmaceutical
drug products in the form in which they are marketed for use, with a specific
mixture of active ingredients and inactive components (excipients), in a
particular configuration such as a capsule shell, tablet etc
• Depending on the method/route of administration, dosage forms come in
several types. These include many kinds of liquid, solid, and semisolid and
gaseous dosage forms.

                   Classification :-


Tablets: Solid dosage form containing medicaments with or
without excipients.
Capsules: Drug enclosed with gelatin capsule.
Powders: Solid dosage forms containing finely divided particles
in micron size.
Granules: Aggregate of drug particles.
Lozenges: Solid preparations containing sugar and gum used to
medicate mouth and throat.

Suppositories: Solid dosage containing medicaments with
suitable suppository base that inserted in to the body cavities
other than mouth, like rectum, nose, ear.

Syrups: Sweet, viscous, concentrated liquid preparations
containing with or without sugar and medicaments.
Elixirs: Liquid preparation for oral containing medicaments with
suitable excipients.
Suspensions: Biphasic liquid dosage form for oral containing
medicaments in which fine solid particles suspended in continuous
Emulsions: Biphasic liquid dosage form for oral containing
medicaments in which fine oil globules dispersed in continuous
Mouth washes: Concentrated aqueous solutions for external use
used to treat mouth infections and oral hygienic.

Creams: Semisolid dosage forms for external use containing with
or without medicaments with suitable fatty base
Paste: Semisolid dosage forms for external use containing high
proportion of finely powdered medicaments with suitable fatty
Gels: Transparent semisolid dosage forms for external use
containing hydrophilic or hydrophobic base with gelling agents
Ointments: Semisolid dosage forms for external use containing
with or without medicaments with suitable ointment base

Aerosols/Sprays: Suspension of fine solid or liquid particles with
gas used to apply drug to respiratory tract having atomizer with in
Inhalations: Internal liquid preparations containing medicaments
dissolved in suitable solvent or if insoluble suspended in the

Prescription is the written order of a physician for the preparation
and administration of a drug or device for a patient.
A prescription has 4 parts as:-
Date of the prescription=The date of the prescription should be at
the top of the prescription
Name, age, and weight of the patient= the name, age weight of
the patient should be written in this part.
Superscription= the part of a pharmaceutical prescription which
contains or consists of the Latin word recipe or the sign ℞
Inscription= the inscription is the part of the prescription, contain
the composition of the medicine and amount of dosage.
Ex- Paracetamol 500mg; Paracetamol 650 mg etc.
Subscription= the subscription is the part of the prescription,
contain the direction to dispense the dosage form.
Ex: Tab Paracetamol – 10 [that means 10 pieces Paracetamol tablet
the Signatura is the part of the prescription, contain the direction
given by the writer to the patient, how and when should the
medicines are taken.
Ex: “TDS” means three times a day; “BID” means “bis in die” or
twice a day; “a.c” means before a meal etc.
the signature is the part of the prescription, contain the signature of
the medical practitioner, who writes the prescription.
Registration Number and seal=
In this part, the registration number of the medical practitioner,
who writes the prescription is given and a stamp of the particular
i. Handling of the prescription is a very important part.
The relation between the medical practitioner and the patient
should be…
-Eye to eye contact.
-Friendly behavior.
-Showing carefulness.
-Care naturally.
-Showing the politeness.
-Encourage the patient.
ii. The relationship between the dispenser and the patient should be
polite and helpful.
Should request to the patient for wait sometimes, when the
dispenser reviewing the prescription.
iii. Maintain the legality for all medication.
iv. Reading of the prescription to check and correctness.
-When the prescription is reading
-Be alert and conscious.
-Not be distracted.
-Don’t engage with other people and devices at the time of dispensing.
There are so many sources of medication error or prescription errors,
1. Legibility:
-Sometimes the handwritten prescription is very difficult to read.
-Lack of appropriate leveling.
-Very bad spelling mistakes of medicines occur.
Ex. Like Metrix and Metriz. These two brand names are quite similar.
But Metriz contains metronidazole and Metrix contains glucosamine.
2. Checking:
No one persons are available to recheck the full medications.
3. Too many customers:
Due to too many customers, the dispenser needs more time to properly
handle. But customers have no time to wait that’s why errors occur.
4. Lack of concentrations:
Every dispenser should properly concentrate on prescription if they not.
Error occurs.
5. Too many phone calls and social media:
This is also very important to stay out of mobiles or keep it switched off
at the time of working.
6. Lack of experience:
Experience is very important in this field.

                                                     Posology is a branch of medicine dealing with doses.
POSO means “dose” and LOGY means “science”
Factors Affecting Posology:-1. Age = Child and old patients require less dose compared to adult
2. Sex = Female require less dose than male. Many hormones like
estrogen, progesterone affect the dose of drug.
3. Body weight = obese person require more dose of drug compared to
4. Route of administration = I.V. route have 100% bioavailability so
less dose is required for same drug as compared to oral route (First
pass metabolism)
5. Time of administration = Food presence affect absorption of drug.
Mostly drugs taken empty stomach show fast absorption.
6. Environmental factor = Statins (Atorvastatin, Rosuvastatin etc.)are
given at bed time because as there effect is maximum at bed time
7. Emotional factor = Dose of drug is also affected by patient
psychology. Sometimes placebo (An inert dosage form)is given for
treatment of psychological patients.
8. Presence of disease = Kidney and Liver disease patients require less
dose of drug.

                                       Pediatric dose calculations
1. Based on Age:-
 a)Young’s Formula – Young’s Rule uses age. (which makes it

 easier to remember, the word young refers to age)
  Child’s dose = Age of child (in years)*Adult dosage
                                    (Age +12)

  year old girl/70 lbs., Adult dose= 500 mg
Child’s Dose= 11 * 500 mg
                      =240 mg

 b)Dilling’s Formula – Child’s Dose= Age in years * Adult Dose

 Adult Dose of ampicillin= 250 mg 3-4 times/day, what
 will be the dose of child of age 10 years?
Child’s Dose= 10 *250
                       = 125 mg

2. Based on Body Weight:-
Clark’s Formula,
Child’s Dose= Weight (in pounds)* Adult Dose

years old girl/70 lbs., Adult Dose=500mg

Child’s Dose= 70 *500 mg
                      = 235 mg

3. Based on Body Surface Area:-
Child’s Dose = Child’s BSA (m^2)*Drug Dose (mg)
                                           1.73 m^

 Adult Dose = 100 mg, calculate the approx. dose for child with
a BSA of 0.83 m^2 (given BSA of an adult is 1.73 m^2)

Child’s Dose= 0.83*100
                      = 47.97 or 48 mg



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