pharmaceutics 2 

here we gonna study about emulsion from subject pharmaceutics 2 and chapter Emulsion in easy way like full chapter with easy language easy to understand and important for examinations in MSBTE as well as others .the first is only emulsion suspension is in other part.so lets get started.

Emulsion and Suspension



An Emulsion is a biphasic liquid preparation containing two immiscible liquids, one of which is dispersed as minute globules into the other. The liquid which Is converted into minute globules is called the “dispersed phase” and the liquid in which the globules are dispersed is called the “continues phase “


1.medicines having an unpleasant taste and order can be made more palatable for oral administration in the form of emulsion.

e.g castor oil ,cod liver oil.

2.emulsion provide protection against drugs which are responsible for oxidation and hydrolysis.

3.many preparation such as creams, lotions are formulated in emulsion.

4.intravenous emulsion containing fats, carbohydrates and vitamin can be administered to the patient who are unable to take orally.


Types of emulsion

1.oil in water emulsion-(o/w)

2.water in oil emulsion-(w/o)

  • Oil in water

In this type of emulsion oil is dispersed phase and water is in continuous phase. this type of emulsion mostly used for internal use.

Gum acacia ,tragacanth, methyl cellulose, synthetic substance and soaps are used and as emulsifying agent.


  • Water in oil

In this water is dispersed phase and oil is in continuous phase

Wool fat, resins , bees wax, and soaps from divalent bases are used as an emulsifying agent.

This type of emulsion mainly used for externally as lotions and creams.


Tests for identification of type of emulsion

The following test are used to differentiate between o/w and w/o .


  1.dilution test-

the emulsion is diluted with water if emulsion remains stable after dilution it is o/w emulsion. If emulsion breaks on dilution it is w/o type.

source -google

2.dye test-

the scarlet dye is used in this test this dye is mixed with emulsion then place a drop of it on a microscopic slide and cover it with cover sleep. And examin under the microscope. If dispersed globule appear red and the ground is colourless then it is o/w type of emulsion and if dispersed globules are colourless and ground is red then it is w/o type.

source -google
  1. conductivity test-                                                                        water is a good conducter of heat and electricity.

source -google

To perform conductivity test dipped pair of electrodes and connect a low voltage bulb in it. If bulb glow current then it is w/o type.


Formulation of emulsion

  1. Emulsifying agents- the emulsifying agent used to reduce interfacial tension between two phases that is liquid and oil phase.

Emulsifying agents also known as emulgents or emulsifiers.

There are lot of emulsifying agents available to form or prepare a stable emulsion but it is very difficult to select a proper emulsifying agent for the development.

No single emulsifying agent can fulfil all the properties require for preparation of stable emulsion therefore they have to use 2 or more emulsifying agents.



Griffin device is useful method for calculating balance mixture of emulsifying agents to form a particular type of emulsion, it is called hydrophile lipophile balance or HLB method. All emulsifying agents has a given no on HLB scale which is divided into 18 units. Emulgents with high no(8-18) indicates hydrophilic properties and they produce o/w type of emulsion. And opposite emulgent with lower no (3-6) indicates lipophilic properties and produce w/o type of emulsion.

source google


Write down the Classification of emulsifying agent?

1.natural- a) vegetable source- gum acacia, tragacanth, agar, pectin, starch, irish moss.

  1. b) animal source-wool fat, egg yolk, gelatin.

2.semisynthetic polysachharides- methyl cellulose, carboxy methyl cellulose.

3.synthetic – anionic ,cationic, non ionic.

4.inorganic- milk of magnesia, magnesium oxide, magnesium trisilicate, magnesium aluminium silicate, bentonite.

5.alcohols- carbowaxes, cholesterols, lecithins.


Properties of ideal emulsifying agents

1.it should be capable of reducing interfacial tension between two immiscible liquids.

2.it should be compatible with other ingredients.

3.it should be non toxic.

4.it should produce and maintain consistency of the emulsion.

5.it should be chemically stable.


Preparation of emulsions.

The following methods used for preparation on small scale.


  • Dry gum methods-(what is mean by primary emulsion)

1.measure required quantity of oil in a dry measure and transfer it to dry morter.

2.add calculated quantity of gum acacia and triturate rapidly to form a uniform mixture.

3.add required quantity of water and triturate vigorously till a clicking sound is produce product become white or nearly white is produce at this stage are called primary emulsion.

4.add more water for required volume





Sr no.Type of the oilRatio of

Oil   :  water   : gum

1Fixed oil4    :    2     :      1Castor oil,

almond oil,

arachis oil,

cod liver oil,

2.Mineral oil3     :    2     :      1Liquid paraffin
3Volatile oil2     :     2     :      1Terpentine oil,

Peppermint oil,

Cinnamon oil.




2.wet gum method


In his method the proportion of oil water gum required for preparing in the primary emulsion as the given above.


1.calculate the quantity of oil water and gum required to prepare  primary emulsion.

2.powder the gum acacia in a mortar. add water and triturate it with gum.

3.add required quantity of oil in small portion rapid trituration.

4.add more water to produce uniform emulsion

5.transfer it to a bottle or container .



3.bottle method


This method id used for the  volatile and other viscous oils.

The proportion of oil water gum is 2:2:1


1.take required quantity of oil and transfer into bottle .add gum acacia  in it

2.shake the bottle vigorously ,until they mixed with each other

3.add calculated amount of water all at once.

4.shake mixture to form primary emulsion.

5.add more water to make require volume.


Other methods


In this various blenders and homogenisers are used for preparing emulsions.

Hand homogenisers ,silverson mixer homogeniser and colloidal mill are used for preparing emulsion.

These homogenisers are bases on principle that the large globules in coarse  are converted into smaller globules by passing through  narrow orifice

The coarse product is produced in mortar and transferred into the homogeniser until desire product get .



Emulsion is the nothing but combination of water and oil which having therapeutics activity. this is some of points we are clear now if you want to know more about emulsion you can check on this WIKIPEDIA

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