First aid:- The first aid is immediate treatment is given to the patient, a victim of an accident or sudden illness till the patient is hospitalized.
First aid is a kind of treatment given to accident victims quickly & correctly while waiting for doctors to come.
- To preserve the life of the patient.
- Prevent further injury to the patient.
- To put the injured person under medical cover of the earliest.
- Maintenance of respiration.
- To control the hemorrhage.
- Prevention of shock.
- To avoid serious damage to the patient.
Resuscitation:- Resuscitation is aimed at maintaining gas exchange in the lungs through artificial respiration & restoring heat activity by method of resuscitation.
It is defined as the restoration of the first life who is appearing dead.
- First aid for an unconscious patient that is C.P.R means cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
- ABC formula for C.P.R is a type of first aid.
- The treatment gives to the unconscious patients it meant includes
- Mouth to mouth respiration.
- Mouth to nose respiration.
- Cardiac a chest massage.
- Never move the patient and its body parts if there is a fracture & dislocation of the bone after observing all the points C.P.R should be started immediately.
- O.P.R can be done by A.B.C formula = A- AIRWAY/B-BREATHING/C-CHEST MASSAGE(CARDIAC MASSAGE)
A stand for Airway:-
- Airway patients should be open & cleaned.
- By wrapping the handkerchief mouth of the patient is cleaned.
- Change the position of the face so that the airway is not blocked due to the patient is cleaned.
- Keep the patient in this position with the chin facing upwards.
- Crowing surrounding the victim must be avoided
- Increase of clean & fresh air in the room in the breath of the patient.
B stands for Breathing:-
- A person may live without food for 70 days or can service without for 7 days but cannot survive more than 3 minutes without oxygen.
- If breathing is stopped then after cleaning immediately start giving mouth breathing also known as artificial breathing.
- This breathing can be done by closing tightly the nose of the patient by first two fingers & forcing entry of air mouth to mouth.
- The expansion of the chest should be observed confirming entry of air into the lung for adults such is artificial breathing should be given in the minute.
- mouth-to-nose respiration if due to fracture at jaw the patient cannot open the jaw the mouth-to-nose respiration is used. in such a case mouth of the patient should be kept closed.
C Stand for Chest/ Cardiac massage:-
- It is found that the pulse of the patient is missing it is an indication of failure of function of the heart.
- In such a situation, cardiac massage is started.
- Cardiac massage is performed by pressing the chest by both the hand & by hills of the hand only.
- While applying the pressure arm should be similar to the area of compression.
- The pressure applied should be 10kg/cm2 or 20 pounds (inches)2 by which chest get pressed by 1.5-5 cm by this way press is applied 60-80 times 1 min.
- One is along with the performing CPR by above to mouth or mouth to nose respiration should be given but if two-person or follow CPR by the above method.
- After 5 compression one artificial respiration should be given.
Control of Haemorrhage:-
- Wounds are open injuries with breaks in the skin or mucous membrane.
- Every wound is associated with bleeding of varying character & strength.
- Excessive loss of blood from the body is known as hemorrhage.
- It may be the surface of the body or from the internal organ of the body.
- Several bleeding occurs when major arteries are wounded.
- Blood escape from arteries at high pressure of bleeding is not arrested the person may bleed to death in few minutes.
- Blood flows more slowly in an even in dark cherry colored.
- Wounds of internal organs ( liver, spleen, kidney, lungs) cause profuse bleeding.
- Damage to smaller blood vessels usually causes bleeding that stops by itself due to coagulation of blood.
- But when larger vessels are damage bleeding does not stop by itself & leads to hemorrhage.
- Hemorrhage should be arrested as quickly as possible serve loss of blood leads to shock & death. the various methods can be used to stop external bleeding temporarily.
- Applied pressure on the point of bleeding.
- Place dressing over the wound & tie it with a bandage tightly.
- Raise the area of bleeding above the heart.
- Raise the food end of the body so that the whole body is titled with the head lower than the feet.
- It is sometimes possible to arrest bleeding by compressing vessels by bending the limb at the joint.
- Profuse arterial bleeding from a limb requires emergency measures which consist in applying a tourniquet must be taken to the hospital immediately.
- The tourniquet is tied on the arm or thigh where a single bone is present.
- With serving mechanical Paramus such as multiple fractures rupture of internal organ &those associated with hemorrhage.
- This syndrome may also be associated with serve head injury, chest injury, disturbance of cardiovascular functions, etc. shock is an extremely serious condition.
It is a state of compensation, weakness, pulse rate goes to low systolic blood pressure 100mm of Hg.
State the partial compensation weakness, polar anxiety cold sweet occasional pulse rate 120 to 140 maximum blood pressure ground 70 to 80 mm of Hg.
State of decompensation marked weakness, polar cold, sweat thirst, vomiting pulse rate 120-160 maximum blood pressure drop below 70 mm of Hg.
Treatment of Shock
- Keep the victim quiet & lying down and bleed should be arrested.
- Keep him warm, cover him to keep warm, if internal organs are not damaged he may be given hot tea or coffee.
- Oral fluids should not be given if the patient is unconscious or vomiting if there is an abdominal wound.
- Fear can make shock worse encourage him.
- Loosen tight clothing but do not remove them.
- Raise the leg, provide warm cover, do not use water bottles or very warm rugs & also do not rub any part of the body with anything.
- In case of greater blood loss, the patient should be shifted to the hospital for blood transfusion.
- Continuous monitoring of the patient is essential.
- Many species of snake are found and many of them are not poisonous but some are deadly poisonous.
- Hence snake bites should always be taken seriously.
- The occurrence of symptoms may take some time to develop.
- Administration of specific antivenin is the like saving treatment for poisonous snake bite.
- Hence identification of snakes is very important so that victims may be given specific amtivenin.
First aid Treatment for Snake Bites
- Apply a loose tourniquet to prevent the poison from being sorbed into the body through veins tourniquet should be placed on the bite, to prevent the flow of blood towards the heart loosen the tourniquet for few seconds after every 13 min.
- Immobilize the injured part because movement or activity of such part may favor faster absorption of the poison into the systemic circulation.
- Wash the wound with soap & water to remove any more poison on the skin surrounding the wound & from the wound itself.
- Make criss-cross incisions over the bitten area & allow it to bleed.
- Suck out the poison from the wound & split it out to be sure that there are no ulcers in the mouth.
- If there is insufficient breathing try artificial breathing.
- If there is a sign of a failing heart then heart massage should be started immediately.
- Intravenous or intramuscular administration of polyvalent or antivenin is given under medical supervision is the best remedy.
In an accident, the bones may break (fracture) or may displace from joints (dislocation) in such cases the sign & symptoms may vary depending on the bone involved & variety of injuries the sign includes swelling tenderness to touch, deformity & pain.
- Closed fracture:- A bone is broken & there is no break in the skin above it.
- Compound fracture:- A bone is broken & there is a wound leading down to the fracture or a bone may protrude out through such wound.
- Complicated fracture:- A fracture with injury to vessel or nerve a vital organ.
General first aid Treatment
- Do not move fractured parts unless necessary.
- If there is bleeding cover it with sterile dressing & try to stop hemorrhage.
- When a fracture is suspected do not give the victim anything by mouth.
- If the victim suffers from shock, then treatment for shock only.
- Take the victim to the hospital. – in case of fracture of bones & that product brain (skull bone), spinal cord (vertebral column) & thoracic organs (thoracic cage) a special first aid treatment is necessary.
In an accident, a serve blow to the head may be associated with a fracture of skull bone.
The signs & symptoms include unconsciousness bleeding from the nose, mouth ears & paralysis of heart, muscle including eyelids and tongue.
Treatment For Fracture:-
- Do not move the victim unless necessary.
- If face color is normal or flashed (reddening) the raise this head & shoulders slightly.
- If their face color is pale then slightly elevate his legs & trunk above the level of his head.
- Loosen the clothing around the neck, chest.
- Do not give anything by mouth.
- Give artificial respiration if needed.
Neck & spine fracture:
The spinal cord is a link of the nervous in between the brain & the rest of the body. it passes down through the spine may cause cervical pain in the neck & back regions & paralysis of the body parts below the injured spot.
Treatment for Neck and Spine Fracture
- Do not move victim until absolutely necessary.
- Do not permit the victim to rotate while moving to take the help of another pers to hold the victim’s head on line with the spine.
- Arrange for moving the victim to the hospital.
Thoracic cage protects heart & lungs. if a broken rib should pierce a lung bright red frothing blood may be coughed out a penetrating wound could also produce bleed from the mouth.
Chest fracture can cause injury to the heat & lungs treatment.
- If the broken rib is suspected gently support the arm on the injured side in slinge.
- If there is an open wound sucking the air cover it immediately to keep the air out.
- Lay the victim down & inclined towards the injured side.
- Arrange for quick transfer to hospital.
Burn and Scalds
- These are injuries caused due to conduct with r too close to heat & strong chemicals.
- Burns are injuries caused by open fire chemicals electricity etc. while scalds are injuries caused by moist heat.
- Both burns & scalds cause similar damage to body tissue & hence the first aid treatment is similar.
- The most serious consequence of burning is the occurrence of shock.
Treatment for Burn and Scalds
- Flood the injury or injured part with plenty of cold water or any other non-inflammable fluid.
- If possible immerse the affected part of the body in cold water or apply a clean cloth kept in cold water to the affected part.
- If water non-inflammable fluids are not available, then smoothen the flames by covering them with a blanket, rug, or coat.
- Do not try to remove the clothing from the burnt area, but around it.
- Keep the victim in a lie-down position to shock
- Do not use absorbent cotton oily substances or antiseptics.
- Give victim fluids if he is conscious & can swallow.
- For burns affecting the eye hold the eye open & flush gently with a water cover with a sterile dressing.
- For electrical burns & shock from lighting apply artificial respiration if breathing has stopped.
- It is rigid material used to fix the end of fracture bone & to make it embolic as nearly as possible.
- There are made up of wooden plank are cardboard etc.
Types of splints
- Knee splints- cardiovascular cross splint / plaster splint / Paylor splint
Knee splint with a protractor
Minor surgery or dressing (elements) element of minor surgery and dressing makes a necessary part of components requires for a minor operation.
- Sterile absorbent cotton
- Adhesive bandage
- Dressing bandage
- Sponge holding forceps
- Saturated surgical needle
- Needle holder
- Ruber hand gloves
- Antiseptic creams – e.g. nitrofrazone cream, citrimide cream.
- local anesthetic- e.g. xylocaine
It is an injury caused by sun heat this occurs mainly to those people who have to wear a ht & cool clothing to protect themselves & who drink plenty of water may not have this problem, however, in-person who is exposed to not damage or other condition which induce copious prescription there is loss of chlorides that need to be
Treatment of Sunstroke
- Transport the victim
- Remove his clothes & cool the body surface by sponging with water.
- If conscious give him the salt solution.
- Arrange for transfer to the hospital.
Two common causes of poisoning are the ingestion of hazardous substances especially by children & intentional ingestion to commute suicide.
If due to precautions are taken while storing such substances; then incidences of accidental poisoning may be greatly reduced. of such precautions include.
Always keep medicines (tranquilizer, sedative, antihistaminics, expectorant, aspirin ) out of reach of children preferably in lock & key arrangement.
Take proper precautions while storing & handling common poisons such as pesticides, petroleum products. soaps, detergents, disinfectants, gasses, etc.
Carefully dispose of all potential poisons remove poisonous plants from the premises.
Treatment of poisoning
- Institute treatment promptly to avoid a fatal outcome.
- The ingested poison available in the stomach should be diluted by administration of milk and water or can be neutralized by administrating a specific antidote if available.
- Immediate emptying of the stomach is also indicated to remove the poison from the stomach.
- Call for a doctor immediately & arrange for a quick transfer to the hospital.
- Save poisonous substance or its container for information to doctor.
- If skin contact has occurred, wash immediately with plenty of water & ordinary soup.
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