1. Introduction Concept of Health
The state of one’s health is reflected in an individual’s ability to meet life’s challenges & maintain his or her capacity for optimal functioning. This requires the various aspects of one’s makeup.
ie. mental, physical & biochemical to maintain a level of functioning that has a positive influence & Support for one another
Concept of Health:
Health is a common theme in most culture
All communities have their concept of health as a part of their culture. The oldest definition of health in all communities in the absence of disease
Definition of Health:
A state of complete physical mental and social well-being and mote merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
In humans it is the general condition of a person of a mind body and spirit, usually meaning being free from illness injury, or pain.
Dimension of Health
- Social well being
Non-medical dimension can be included are
- It implies perfect functioning of the body
- Energetic has good posture weights normal for age and height, has all body organs functioning normally, has bright eyes has good textured and shining hair, has a good appetite has a clean breath.
- A person is physically healthy if he or she looks alert and responsive.
- Mental health is not a mere absence of mental illness of a mentally healthy person is one who is free from internal conflicts
- Control on emotions.
- Sensitive to the needs of others.
- Confidence is one’s own abilities
- A person is mentally healthy if he or she is relaxed & free from any worries
Social well. being:-
- It implies harmony & integration within the individual between each individual & other members of the society & between individuals & the world in which they live
- Has pleasant manners.
- Fulfills responsibility towards other help other gets along well with people around,
- A person is socially healthy if he or she can move in society confidently with others.
A person is said to be spiritually healthy when he possesses a sound mind in a body.
something transcends physiology & psychology
A person is said to be emotionally healthy when he does not lose Temper or does not develop tension & should have self-control
Capable of earning sufficiently to lead life successfully
A person who is healthy physically mentally and socially and spiritually is said to be in a state of positive health.
i.e highest standards of health.
Concept of well being
Standard of living
- the scale of our expenditure
- goods we consume
- services are enjoy
- level of education employment status, food, dress, house
- amusements & comforts of modern living
The factors which determine the health of an individual are many some are inside the body(genetics) & some are outside the body.
Genetics:- The health of the human being genetic constitutional the take place at the time of consumption once the constitution of genes takes place is permanent & cannot be altered.
- The internal environment is constituted by various organs & systems of the body.
- The external environment is made up of physical (air, soil, water)
- Any disturbance either in the internal or external environment disturbs the health of the individuals.
Other factors affecting health
- Personal hygiene
- Rest & sleep
- Clean home environment
- Influence of smoking alcohol & drugs
- Climate & clothing
- Safety measure at play & work
- Our eating habits
Indicators of health
These are the guidelines that indicate the health status of a country
- To measure the health status of a country
- To compare the health status of one country to another country
- Assess the health care needs
- To plan & implement health care services
- To evaluate the health care services
- Mortality indicators
- Disability rate
- Nutritional status
- Health care delivery indicators
- Indicate of social & mental health
- Utilization rates
- Health policy
- Indicators of quality of life
- Environmental indicators
- Other indicators
- Crude death rate:- No of deaths per 1000 population per year in a given area
- Infant mortality rate:-No of deaths of infants per 1000 live births during a given year or population/country
In a most important indicator of health because it reflects not only the quality of maternal & child services but also the availability & utilization of the service
- Maternal mortality rate:- It’s about deaths during antenatal & postnatal
- Child mortality rate:-No of deaths of children between 1 to 4 years during a given year per 1000 mid-year population that age group this exclude infant portability rate.
These reveal the burden of the disease in the community thus are used to supplement the mortality rates.
The following morbidity rates are used for assessing the health status
- Incidence rate
- Notification rate
- Outpatients attendance rate
- Hospital admission & discharge rate
- Duration of stay in the hospital
- Incidence rate:- It’s no of a new case of a particular disease occurring per 1000 population per year.
- Prevalence rate:- Total no of both old & new cases existing in the population during a given period of time, its % of the population suffering from the disease.
- Disability rates:-% of the population unable to perform the routine expected daily activities due to injury or illness
- Nutritional status indicator:
- Incidence of low birth weight
- Weight and height standards of children up to 5 years.
- Health care delivery indicators:-
These indicate the availability of health manpower resources of the country & thus the provision of health care.
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