pharmaceutics 1st difference between

pharmaceutics 1st difference between


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Pharmaceutics-1

Chapter-Distillation

Difference between distillation and evaporation

 
DISTILLATION EVAPORATION
1. Distillation is carried out when condensed vapour is required or is to be removed. 1. Evaporation is carried out when condensed residue is required.
2. vapour is formed throughout the liquid. 2. Vapour is usually formed at the surface of the liquid.
3. Vapour formed are condensed and collected 3. vapour formed are not usually collected.
4. Distillation occurs at the boiling point of the liquid 4. Evaporation occurs at the surface of the liquid

Chapter-introduction to drying processes


Difference between evaporation distillation and drying.

           EVAPORATION         DISTILLATION          DRYING
1. Evaporation means free escape of vapour from the surface of the liquid 1.it is a process of conversion of liquid to vapour and reconverting vapour into liquid. 1.drying is the process of removal of liquid from solid by vapourization.
2.it is observed at equilibrium between the vapour pressure of liquid and atmospheric pressure. 2.it is done on the basis of difference of vapour pressure. 2.it involves transform of heat and mass.
3.not for thermolabile substances.

3.it is done under reduced pressure, thermolabile substances can be processed.

3.freeze dryer can be used for thermolabile substances


pharmaceutics 1st difference between

Chapter-Sterilization

Difference between sterilization and disinfection

STERILIZATION DISINFECTION
1. It is processed by which all viable forms of micro-organism are removed or destroyed. 1.it is a process that removes infection potential by destroying micro-organism.
2.the bacterial spores are also destroyed. 2.the bacterial spores are not destroyed.
3.sterilization is done by any of the physical, chemical and mechanical methods. 3.disinfection is done by using any one of the disinfectants.
4.sterilization term is used for destroying micro-organism and spores at any place like pharmaceutical preparation or at any object. 4.disinfection term is mainly used to kill the micro-organism from inanimate objects.

Chapter-Processing of tablet

Difference between compressed tablet and solution tablet.

COMPRESSED TABLET SOLUTION TABLET
1. compressed tablets include standard, uncoated tablets made by compression. 1.solution tablets are effervescent, dispensing, hypodermic and Tablet triturates. 
2.tablets are ingested orally.   2.tablets are first to be dissolved in water prior to use. Eg, in the case of effervescent tablets.
SUSTAINED RELEASE TABLETS CONTROLLED RELEASE TABLETS
1.The onset of action is slow and the duration of action is less. 1.on set of action fast and longer duration of action.
2.frequency of dosing is more as compared to controlled release. 2.frequency of dosing is less as compared to sustained release.
3.drug concentration level in blood plasma is not maintained. 3.therapeutically effective and constant concentration of the drug in the plasma is maintained. Eg, transdermal patches.

Difference between lozenges and chewable tablets.

LOZENGES CHEWABLE TABLETS
1. these are solid dosage form containing sugar and gums. gums impart hardness and cohesiveness and slow release of the drug 1.these are solid dosage form makeup of sugar gum by compressing method. they are meant to dissolve in the mouth for local effect.
2.they are used to medicating the mouth and throat. these are not disintegrated in the mouth. 2.they stimulate salivation.

pharmaceutics 1st difference between

Difference between wet granulation and dry granulation

WET GRANULATION DRY GRANULATION
1. It is a wet process. 1.it is a dry process.
2.granulating agent is required for the preparation of granules. 2.slugging is required for granulation.
3.with this method, more hard tablets are produced. 3.tablets are not comparatively so hard
4.time, space, and equipment required are more. 4.time, space and equipment required are less.
5.higher cost 5.lower cost
6.not suitable for water sensitive and thermolabile substances. 6.as it is a dry process, it is suitable for all.

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pharmaceutics 1st difference between

Difference between fine powder and granules.

 

                       FINE POWDER                   GRANULES
1. The fine powder does not have free-flowing property, hence weight variation in the tablet is produced. 1.granules flow easily and do not give weight variation in the tablet produced.
2.in mixed powder, segregation of different component is possible 2.granules are of uniform composition and segregation is not a problem. But granules should contain 5-15% of the fine.
3.tablets formed are brittle. 3.granules packed down easily and produced a hard tablet.
4.fine particles tend to blow out of the die cavity during compression. 4.granules being heavier do not blow out of die cavity.

Difference between single punch machine and rotary tablet machine.

SINGLE PUNCH MACHINE ROTARY TABLET MACHINE
1. compression of granules as the material is abrupt. 1.compression of the material is granular.
2.pressure is by the punches I.e upper and lower punch. 2.pressure is exerted by pressure rolls.
3.during compression, the lower punch is stationary and the upper punch is moving 3.both the punches are moving
4.weight of the tablet adjust before filling 4.weight Is adjusted after filling.
5.for feeding the material, a feed shoe is used. 5.feeding is done with feed frame
6.it consist of fixed the and plate which hold the die. 6.it consists of a revolving turret in which dies are continuously revolving.
7.less economic 7.more economic.

pharmaceutics 1st difference between

Chapter-processing of capsule

Difference between hard gelatin capsule and soft gelatin capsule.

<td>7.shell is perfectly dried.

HARD GELATIN CAPSULE SOFT GELATIN CAPSULE
1. Hard gelatin capsule shell consists of two parts a) body AND b) cap 1.soft gelatin capsule shell consists of a single unit.  
2.cylindrical in shape. 2.round, oval and tube-like in shape.
3. the content of the gelatin capsules are in the form of powder, beads or granules 3.the contents of soft gelatin capsules are liquid or solid dispersed in excipients to give a paste-like consistency.
4.hard gelatin capsules are prepared from gelatin, titanium dioxide. Colouring agent and plasticizer. 4.soft gelatin capsules are prepared from gelatin, plasticizers and a preservative.
5.filling and sealing of hard gelatin capsule occur in a different step. 5.filling and sealing of soft gelatin capsule are done in one step.
6.contents of capsule shell are principally made of gelatin 6.capsule hell may be prepared from gelatin and a mixture of gelatin with other substances.
7.shell is not perfectly dried.

 


Chapter-Immunity and immunological products.

Difference between active immunity and passive immunity.

ACTIVE IMMUNITY PASSIVE IMMUNITY
1.Antigens are injected in the human body, as a result, antibodies are formed. 1.Ready-made antibodies are injected into the human body. The antibodies are produced in the animal.
2.since the antibody formation is gradual, the onset of action is slow. 2.Ready antibodies are injected hence onset action is quicker
3.immunity produced is for a longer period. 3.immunity produced lasts for a shorter period.
4.the treatment is prophylactic Or preventive. 4.the treatment is therapeutic or curative.
5.preparation; vaccines, toxoids etc 5.preparation; sera
6.in naturally acquired active immunity the immunity is acquired by the infection of causative organisms. 6.in naturally acquired passive immunity, the immunity against several infections is acquired naturally.
7.in artificially acquired active immunity, when the antigenic substances such as vaccines are introduced in the body stimulates the body to produce antibodies eg; vaccines 7.In artificially acquired passive immunity, the immunity is  produced by injecting readymade antibodies containing preparation in the body eg; antiserum, sera

Difference between natural immunity and naturally acquired immunity.

NATURAL IMMUNITY NATURALLY ACQUIRED IMMUNITY
1.This type of immunity is natural without the use of any biological preparation 1.This type of immunity is to be developed by using biological preparation.
2.this type of immunity is of various types:- e.g a) specific immunity        b)Racial immunity        c)Individual immunity 2.this type of immunity is of two types e.g:- a) naturally acquired active immunity.           b) naturally acquired passive immunity.
3.natural immunity is mainly due to various general factors of resistance like age, race, species and individual. 3.acquired immunity is acquired by an individual during his lifetime by producing antibodies in the body.
4.the duration natural immunity depends upon the resistance power of the body itself. 4.duration of acquired immunity depends upon the type of acquired immunity. I,e active- long-lasting and Passive- short-lived

Difference between antioxidants and toxoids.

ANTIOXIDANTS TOXOIDS
1.These are the preparation containing antibodies. 1.toxoids are derived from bacterial toxins, which on further treatment with some chemical is converted to toxoids.
2.these are used for passive immunization. 2.these are used for active immunization.
3.animal is required to prepare antitoxin. e.g- horse 3.animal is not required. Pathogenic bacteria produced toxoids.
4.e.g 1) diphtheria antitoxin           2) tetanus antitoxin 4. e.g- 1) diphtheria prophylactic              2)tetanus toxoid.

Difference between antitoxins and antiserum.

ANTITOXINS ANTISERUM
1.Produced by immunizing on animal preparation containing the antitoxic antibody are known as antitoxins. Ex- 1) diphtheria antitoxins        2) gas gangrene antitoxin. 1.Seras are the immunological preparation containing antibodies. Antisera may contain anti-toxic, anti-bacterial, anti-viral antibodies. Ex- 1) Leptospermum antiserum        2) Rabies antiserum.

Difference between endotoxins and endotoxins

EXOTOXINS ENDOTOXINS
1.These are the toxins which can diffuse freely through the bacterial cell wall into the blood or the medium in which the micro-organisms are growing. 1.These are the toxins which cannot diffuse through the bacterial cell wall and are retained within the bacteria. They are released only when the cell dies and starts disintegrating.
2.these toxins are carried to all parts, thus producing harmful effects. 2.endotoxins are liberated only when the bacteria are disintegrated.
3.in its response, the human body produces antibodies to neutralize its effect which is called antitoxins. 3.these antibodies are named according to their mode of action.

Difference between vaccines and sera.

VACCINES SERA
1.Vaccines are mostly antigenic preparations. 1.sera are the biological preparations containing readymade antibodies.
2.administration of vaccines by injection stimulates the formation of specific antibody which acts against the organism 2.when sera are injected in the body, directly fight with organisms and kill them.
3.body is immune to produce antibodies in response to antigen. 3.body is not immune to produce antibodies on subsequent infection with the organism.
4.vaccines are long-acting. 4.sera are short-acting.
5.vaccines are prophylactic or preventive in nature. 5.sera are curative or therapeutic in nature.
6. vaccines have a slow onset of action. 6.sera has a quicker onset of action.

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