Pharmaceutics all chapters Defination
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1)DRUG– the substance which is meant for treatment, mitigation or prevention of disease or disorder in human beings or animals, intended to affect any other functions or any structure of human body is known as drugs.
2) Dosage forms– Dosage form is a transformation of pure chemical compound into predetermined form by add mixing drug compound with different kinds of non drug components.
3)Dose– it is minimum amount of drug which is administered to the patient by physician to produce desired response without any adverse effect.
4)Solutions– Solution are liquid dosage form of the medicaments containing one or more chemical substance which is dissolve in water. Ex- chloroform water
5) Syrup– Syrup is liquid dosage form of medicaments which are sweet, viscous, concentrated aqueous solution of sucrose. Concentration of sugar is 66.7%w/w.ex-orange syrup, lemon syrup
6)Tinctures– Tinctures are alcoholic or hydro alcoholic preparation usually containing in comparatively dilute proportions, the active principle form vegetable or animal sources. Ex-orange tincture, lemon tincture.
7) Elixir– Elixir are clear, pleasant In flavoured, sweetened, hydro alcoholic liquid preparation for oral administration. The main ingredients of elixir are ethyl alcohol, glycerine or propylene glycol, flavouring agent, syrup and some preservatives. Ex- chlophheniramine elixir,diphenhydramine elixir,paracetamol elixir.
8) Spirit– Spirit consist of alcoholic or hydro alcoholic of volatile substance ex- brandy,whisky, chloroform spirit etc
9) Drops– these are the liquid preparation meant for the oral administration ex- vitamin A , vitamin D.
10)Linctuse– Linctuses are the liquid dosage form of the medicaments which is sweet , viscous containing medical substance and mainly used for relief of cough. Linctuses are swallowed slowly in small doses without addition of water ex-codeine lictuses, noscapine linctuses.
11)Liniments– Liniments are liquid and semi liquid preparation meant for application to the skin with friction. It may be oily or alcoholic solutions or emulsions. liniments contents analgesic, rubeficeint , soothing, counter- irritant or stimulating property.ex- camphor liniments , terpentine liniments
12) Lotion– Lotions are liquid preparation meant for the application to the skin without friction.lotion usually contents alcohol and glycerine because alcohol increases drying and produces cooling sensation and glycerine keeps the skin moist for a long time. Lotions are used for local action, cooling, soothing or protective purpose e.ex- calamine lotion, salicylic acid lotion and mercuric chloride lotion.
13)Gargles-Gargles are aqueous solution used to prevent or treat throat infections. Gargles are usually available into concentrated form with direction for dilution with warm water before use.
14) Mouth wash– Mouth washes are usually aqueous solutions in concentrated form with pleasant taste and flavour used for rising , deodorant, refreshing or antiseptic action. e.g- zinc sulphate mouth wash.
15) Throat paint– Throat paint are viscous liquid preparation used for mouth and throat infections. E.g. compound sodium chloride mouth wash BPC..
16) Sprays– Sprays are liquid preparation of medicaments in aqueous, alcoholic or glycerine containing vehicles and are meant for application to the nose or throat by means of an atomizer or nebulizer. E.g. compound adrenaline and atropine spray.
17) Inhalations– these are liquid preparations containing volatile substances and are used to relieve congestion and inflammation of the respiratory tract. E.g. benzoin inhalation, eucalyptus inhalation.
18)Nasal drops– nasal drops are usually aqueous solution intended for instillation into the nostrils by meant of a dropper. E.g. ephedrine nasal drop.
19) Eye drops– eye drops are sterile solution or suspension of drugs that are instilled into the eye with a dropper. Eye drop should be sterile , isotonic, buffered and free from foreign particles to avoid irritation to the eyes.
20) Eye lotion– eye lotions are the aqueous solution used for washing the eye. The eye lotions are supplied in concentrated form and required to be diluted with warm water before use. E.g. sodium chloride eye lotion, sodium bicarbonate eye lotion.
21) Ear drops– these are solutions of drugs that are instilled into the ear with a dropper. These are generally used for cleansing the ear, softening the wax and for treating mild infection. E.g. sodium bicarbonate eye drops, phenol ear drops etc.
22) Isotonic solutions– isotonic solution are the solutions having the same tonicity with that of blood or lachrymal secretions.
23)Suspensions– suspensions are the biphasic liquid dosage form in which solid substances are suspended in a liquid medium and are stabilized by addition of suspending agent.
24) Suspending agent– suspending agents which increases the viscosity of the preparations, so that the solid particles remain suspended in the preparation for long period of time. They are also known as thickening agent.
25)Emulsion– emulsion are the biphasic system in which one phase is dispersed in another phase in the form of minute droplets ranging in diameter from 0.1micrometer. e.g. castor oil emulsion, liquid paraffin emulsion.
26) Emulsifying agents– the agents which are used to reduce interfacial tension between two phases( oil phase and water phase) to make stable emulsion. The agent also known as emulsifier or emulgents.
27) Ointments– ointments are semi-solid preparation meant for application to the skin or mucous membrane. They usually contain a medicaments dissolved, suspended or emulsified in the base. E.g. compound benzoic acid ointment.
28)Creams– creams are viscous, semisolid emulsion meant for external use. E.g. cold cream, vanishing cream, cetrimide cream etc.
29)Paste– pastes are semi-solid preparations, intended for external application to the skin. They are differ from ointment as they contain a high proportion of finely divided powdered medicaments such as zinc oxide, calcium carbonate, starch etc. e.g. zinc and coal tar paste.
30) Jellies– jellies are transparent, translucent, non greasy semi-solid preparations mainly used for external application to the skin. E.g. proflavin jelly.
31) Suppositories– suppositories are solid or semi-solid dosage forms, usually medicated for insertion into body cavities like rectum, vagina or urethral tract. They melt or disintegrate at body temperature. E.g. zinc oxide suppositories.
32)Implants– implants are hypodermic tablets which are placed under the skin by means of minor surgery to release the drug over prolonged period of time.
33) Prodrug– the compound that shows desirable pharmacological activity after its metabolism are called as prodrugs.
34)Pharmaceutical aid– pharmaceutical aids are the substances having little or no therapeutic value but still are used in compounding and dispensing.
35)Additives– additives are the inert substances which are added along with the medicaments.
36) Enemas– passage of liquid into the bowel per rectum is known as enema.
Chapter- Introduction to pharmacopoeias
37)Pharmacopoeia– pharmacopoeia is the official book published by the government of that country. It contain list of drugs, formulae for medicinal preparation with detail information with respect to tests, descriptions for these substances and their standard. The word pharmacopoeia has been derived from Greek word PHARMAKON meaning drug and poeia meaning to make.
38) Monograph– Monograph is published report on one particular
39) Metrology– system of weights and measure is known as metrology.
40) Imperial standard pounds– imperial standard pound is the measurement unit of mass equivalents to 453.59 gms in metric system.
41)Allegation– allegation is the rapid method of calculation which is derived from the Latin term ALLIGATION meaning the act of attaching.
42)Osmosis– if the solutions of different concentration are separated by a semipermeable membrane the solvent will move from the solution of lower solute concentration to the solution of higher solute concentration. this diffusion of solvent through a membrane is called osmosis.
43)Paratonic solution– the solution which are not having the same osmotic pressure are called as paratonic solution.
44) Hypertonic solution– hypertonic solution contains more quantity of the solute than the quantity required to make them isotonic. OR the solutions with higher osmotic pressure is called hypertonic solution.
45)Hypotonic solution– solution with lower osmotic pressure than plasma are called hypotonic solution.
chapter- packaging of pharmaceutics
46)Packaging– packaging may be defined as an art and science which deals with the study of materials and method used to pack the product and also the knowledge of machinery used packing the products.
47)Container– the container is the device that holds the drug.
48)Closure– Closure is a device by means of which container can be opened and closed.
49)Liner-Liner may be defined as a material which is inserted in a cap, to effect a perfect seal between the closure and the container.
Chapter- Size reduction
50) Size Reduction– size reduction is the process which breaks bigger particles of substance into smaller particle.
51)Size Separation– the process of fractionation of particles on the basis of their size range is known as grading or sifting or size separation.
52)Sieving– the process of separation of fine particle from coarse powder.
Chapter-Mixing and Momogenization.
53) Mixing– Mixing is the process in which two or more ingredients are treated so that every particle of any one ingredient lies as near as possible to the particle of another ingredient.
54) Demixing– the demixing is defined as the process of separation of each particle of the powder from the mixture.
55)Homogenization– homogenization is the process of preparing fine emulsion from a coarse emulsion by converting the large globules to small globules. Homogenization is done in an apparatus called homogeniser.
Chapter-Filtration and Clarification
56) Filtration– filtration is defined as the process of removal of solids or suspended matter in a liquid or gas by passing through a porous medium in which solid are retained or entrapped.
57) Clarification– it is the process of removal of solid in very less concentration from liquid i.e. less than 1% and filtrate is the primary product of clarification.
58) Cake filtration– in the process of filtration, if the solid retains on the surface of the medium and forms a cake, then the filtration is known as cake filtration.
59)Ultra filtration– ultra filtration may be defined as the separation of intermicellar liquid from the solid by the use of pressure on a semipermeable membrane.
60)Pre-filtration– treatments given to slurry to increase the rate of filtration is known as pre-filtration treatment.
61)Filter media– the surface upon which solids are deposited in a filter is called as the filter medium.
62)Filter aid-filter aids are the substances, which increase the rate of filtration by reducing the resistance and are added to the preparation in concentration from 0.1% to 0.5% w/v before filtration.
Chapter- Extraction processes.
63)Extraction– extraction is the process of removal of active ingredients from the crude drugs of animal or plant orgin using a suitable solvent.
64)Menstruum– the solvent used for the process of extraction is known as menstrum.
65)Mare– the inactive/inert insoluble material remains after the process of extraction.
66) Organised drug– organised drugs having well defined cellular structure. E.g. parts of plant which contains alkaloid, glycoside etc.
67)Unorganised drug– unorganised drugs do not have well defined cellular structure. these are non cellular in nature and produced from plants.
68)Galenicals– the preparation obtained by extraction process are called galenicals.
69)Infusion– it is the process of extracting the vegetable drugs and water is used as menstrum.
70)Decoction– Decoction is the process of extraction of hard or woody drug by using water as a menstruum. The drug is boiled in the process of decoction.
71) Maceration– it is defined as place the solid material with the whole menstrum in closed vessel and allow to stand for seven days shaking occasionally.
72) Percolation– percolation may be defined as the process in which the maceration is followed by downward displacement of saturated menstrum and the drug is exhausted by the slow passage of the menstrum through the column of the drug.
Chapter- Introduction to ayurvedic dosage forms
73) Ayurvedic Drugs–an ayurvedic medicines is defined in drugs and cosmetics act 1940 and include all medicines intended for internal or external use or in the diagnosis, treatment, mitigation or prevention of disease or disorder , in human beings or animals and manufactured exclusively in accordance with the formulae described in the authoritative books of ayurvedic system of medicines specified in first schedule of the act.
74) Avaleha(lepa)– avaleha (leha) and paka are the semi-solid preparations of the drugs prepared by addition of sugars, jaggery or sugar candy and boiled with prescribed drug juice or decoction.
75) Ghritas – ghritas are the preparation in which ghee is boiled with the prescribed quantity of the decoction and fine paste of the drug as specified in the formula.
76)Asavas– asavas are medicated weak alcoholic preparation prepared by infusion of drugs in cold or hot water and allowing to undergo fermentation with the help of raw sugar or honey.
77)Aristas– these are the weak alcoholic preparations prepared by making a decoction of the drugs and then allowing them to undergo fermentation with the help of raw sugar or honey or jaggery.
78)Arka– arkas are the liquid preparations obtained by distillation of certain liquid or crude drugs soaked in water using the distillation unit.
79)Tailas– tailas are the preparation in which taila is boiled with specified decoction and fine paste of the drugs as mentioned in the prescribed formula.
80)Churna– fine powder of drug or drugs is known as churna.
81)Anjana– these are medicated fine powder intended to be used in the eyes for their local effect.
82)Sattava– water extractable solid substances obtained from a drug is known as sattava.
83)Rasas– these are preparation of metal containing mercury in any form.
84)Ksharas– alkaline substances obtained from the ash or drug are known as ksharas.
85)Heat transfer– heat is the form of energy. heat flow from a system of higher temperature to a system of lower temperature is referred as heat transfer.
86)Conduction– when heat flows through a body by transmission of momentum of individual atom or molecules without appreciable displacement of particles is called conduction. E.g. flow of heat by conduction when one end of rod is heated the whole length of rod gets heat up.
87)Convection– the heat transfer take place by the actual motion of the particles. i.e. during the process of mixing is called convection. E.g. heat transfer by convection is the heating of water in a glass beaker.
88)Radiation– Radiation is a transfer of energy through space by means of electromagnetic waves. E.g. heat radiation emitted by sun.
89)Boiling point– boiling point is the temperature at which the vapour pressure of liquid is equal to the pressure applied externally.
90) Evaporation– evaporation may be defined as the free escape of vapours from the surface of liquid below its boiling point.
91)Sublimation– it is the process in which a solid gets converted in vapour without the formation of liquid and on cooling, the vapour gets converted in solid.
92)Desiccation-the process of removal of adherent moisture from solid and liquid is called desiccation.
93)Calcination– calcination is the process in which inorganic substances are strongly heated to remove their volatile constituents by formation of residue.
94)Distillation– distillation is the process of converting liquid into vapour by heating and reconverting it again into liquid by condensing the vapour.
95)Still-in which volatile material is boiled.
96)Condenser– in which vapour are condensed.
97)Receiver– in which distillate is collected.
98)Still-the vessel or the container in which the process is carried out or the substance is heated is known as still.
Chapter- introduction to drying process.
99)Drying– Drying is defined as a final removal of liquid from solid by vapourization with the application of heat. The equipment used for drying is called dryer.
100)Lyophilization– Freeze drying is a drying process in which water is sublimed and removed from the product after it is frozen at the reduced pressure. It is also known as sublimation drying. As the dried product is lyophilic and readily takes back the water, the process is also referred to as lyophilization.
101)Sterilization– sterilization is a process of killing or removing mico-organism and their spores from the substance, material or preparation required to be used in sterile form.
102)Aseptic technique-the methods which are used to prevent the access of micro-organisms during the preparation of parenteral products and their testing are called aseptic technique.
Chapter-processing of tablets
103)Tablets– It is a unit solid dosage form containing drug substances with or without suitable diluent prepared by compressing powdered or granulated medicinal substances in die.
104)Microencapsulation– Microencapsulation is a process or technique by which thin coating can be applied to small particles of solids, droplets of liquids or dispersion thus forming microencapsules.
Chapter-processing of capsules.
105) Capsule– capsule are solid dosage form in which drug substances are enclosed in a water soluble shell or an envelope.
Chapter- Immunity and immunological products
106) Immunity– infection occurs when the micro-organism successfully invades the body and can cause damage to the tissues. the capacity or power of the body to resist and overcome infection is called as immunity.
107)Immunology– the study of immunity is known as immunity.
108) Susceptibility– the lack of ability of the body to resist the infection is known as susceptibility.
109)Antigens– antigens are the substances that stimulate antibody forming cells to produce specific antibodies.
110) Antibody– antibodies are the substances that are formed in the body in response to stimulation by antigens.
111)Pathogens– pathogens are the organisms capable of causing infection.
112)Toxin– many pathogenic organisms produce a toxic or poisonous substance as a by product of their metabolism called toxin.
113)Toxoids– Toxoids are defined as a modified toxin, detoxified by the use to moderate heat and chemical treatment so that their antigenic property is retained. Toxoids are toxins whose toxicity has been removed. They are employed for development of active immunity.
114)Virulence– it is the degree of pathogenicity of a given strain or pure culture of micro-organisms.
115) Carrier– Carrier is an individual which carries and transmits pathogens, but does not display himself clinical symptoms of the disease.
116) Invasiveness– it is a capacity of pathogens to invade and penetrate the host tissue.
117)Infection– it is a diseased state due to invasion of pathogenic organism.
118) Toxigenicity– Toxigenicity is the ability of organism to produce toxic substances.
119)infestation-the presence of animal parasites into the human body.
120) Vaccines– vaccines are the mostly antigenic preparations which stimulate antibody formation thereby producing immunity.
121)Sera– Sera are the biological preparations containing ready made antibodies , hence when they are injected in the body, they fight with organisms and kill them.
122) Immunization– it is the process by which stimulation of formation of specific antibody is carried out in human body.
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