Pharmaceutics Second All Definitions
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- Posology– Greek word posos meaning how much and logos meaning science. So posology is a branch of medical science which deals with dose or quantity of drugs which can be administered to a patient to get the desired pharmacological actions.
- ADDITIVE EFFECT– When the total pharmacological action of two or more drugs administered together is equivalent to the sum of their individual pharmacological action, the phenomena is called as an additive effect.
- SYNERGISM – When two or more drugs are used in the combination form, their action is increased. The phenomena are called synergism.
- ANTAGONISM– When the action of the drug is opposed by the other drug on the same physiological system is known as drug antagonism.
- IDIOSYNCRASY– An extraordinary response to a drug which is different from its characteristics pharmacological action is called idiosyncrasy.
- TOLERANCE– When an unusually large dose of a drug is required to elicit an effect ordinarily produced by the normal therapeutic dose of the drug, the phenomenon is termed as drug tolerance.
- TACHYPHYLAXIS– It has been observed that when certain drugs are administered repeatedly at short intervals, the cell receptor get blocked up and pharmacological response to that particular drug is decreased. This phenomenon is known as tachyphylaxis or acute tolerance.
SOLID DOSAGE FORM
- POWDER– A pharmaceutical powder is a mixture of finely divided drug and chemicals in dry form. These are solid dosage form of medicament which is meant for internal and external use.
- DUSTING POWDERS – These are meant for external application to the skin and are generally applied in a very fine state of subdivision to avoid local irritation.
- INSUFFLATIONS – These are medicated dusting powders meant for introduction into the body cavities such as nose, throat, ears and vagina with the help of an apparatus known as insufflator.
- SNUFFS – These are finely divided solid dosage forms of medicament which are inhaled into nostrils for its antiseptic, bronchodilator and decongestion action.
- CACHETS – Cachets are the solid unit dosage form of drugs. These are moulded from rice paper, which is made by pouring a mixture of rice flour and water between two hot, polished, revolving cylinders. Cachets are also known as wafer capsule.
- TABLET TRITURATE– These are powders moulded into tablets. Moulded tablets are flat, circular disc and usually contains a potent substance which is mixed with lactose, dextrose or some other suitable diluent.
- HYGROSCOPIC AND DELIQUESCENT POWDERS – The powder which absorbs moisture from the atmosphere are called hygroscopic powders. But certain powder absorbs moisture to such a great extent that they go into solution and are called deliquescent powders.
- POTENT DRUGS – The substances having a maximum dose of less than one grain and poisonous substances are regarded as potent drugs.
MONOPHASIC LIQUID DOSAGE FORMS
- MONOPHASIC LIQUID DOSAGE FORM– It refers to liquid preparation in which there is only one phase. It is represented by a true solution.
- TRUE SOLUTION– A true solution is a clear homogenous mixture that is prepared by dissolving a solid, liquid or gas in a liquid.
- SOLVENT– The component of a solution present in large amount is known as a solvent.
- SOLUTE– The composition present in a small amount is known as solute.
- MIXTURE– A mixture is a liquid preparation meant for oral administration in which medicament or medicaments are dissolved or suspended in a suitable vehicle. Generally, several doses are dispensed in a bottle. In case, a bottle contains one dose, it is called
- SYRUP – A syrup is a concentrated or nearly saturated solution of sucrose in purified water. The concentrated of sugar is 66.7% w/w. The syrups are sweet viscous preparations. The syrup containing medicinal substances are called medicated syrup and those containing aromatic or flavoured substances are known as flavoured syrups.
- ELIXIRS- Elixirs are clear, sweetened, aromatic, hydroalcoholic liquids intended for oral use. The main ingredients of elixirs are ethyl alcohol, water, glycerin or propylene glycol, flavouring agent, colouring agent and some suitable preservative.
- LINCTUSES– Linctuses are vicious, liquid and oral preparations that are generally prescribed for the relief of cough. They contain medicaments which have demulcent, sedative or expectorant action.
- LINIMENTS – The liniments are liquid or semi-liquid preparations meant for application to the skin. The liniments are usually applied to the skin with friction and rubbing of the skin. The liniments may be alcoholic or oily solutions or emulsions.
- LOTIONS – Lotions are liquid preparations meant for external applications without friction. They are applied direct to the skin with the help of some absorbent material, such as cotton wool or gauze soaked in it. Lotions may be used for local action as cooling, soothing or protective purposes. They are generally applied for antiseptic action.
- GARGLES – Gargles are aqueous solutions used to prevent or treat throat infections. They are usually available in concentrated form with direction for dilution with warm water before use.
They are brought into intimate contact with the mucous membrane of the throat and are allowed to remain in contact with it for a few seconds before they are thrown out of the mouth.
- MOUTH WASHES– These are aqueous solutions with a pleasant taste and odour used to make clean and deodorize the buccal cavity. Generally, they contain antibacterial agents, alcohol, glycerin, sweetening agents, flavouring agents and colouring agents.
- THROAT PAINTS – Throat paints are viscous liquid preparations used for mouth and throat infections. Glycerin is commonly used as a base because of being viscous.
- DOUCHES– A douche is a medicated solution meant for rinsing a body cavity. The word douche is often used for vaginal solutions.
- EAR DROPS – These are solutions of drops that are instilled into the ear with a dropper. The solution is generally prepared in water, glycerin, propylene glycol or dilute alcohol. These are generally used for cleaning the ear, softening the wax and for treating the mild infection.
- NASAL DROPS – These are aqueous solutions of drops that are instilled into the nose with a dropper. The oily vehicle is not used nowadays because oily drops inhibit the movement of cilia in the nasal mucosa and if used for long periods, may reach the lungs and cause lipoid pneumonia.
- NASAL SPRAYS – Nasal sprays are used to reduce nasal congestion and to treat infections. The main aim of nasal spray is to retain the nasal solution in the droplets form in the nasal tract. The nasal spray should be isotonic and buffered at PH 6.2. They may contain antibiotics and antihistamines.
BIPHASIC LIQUID DOSAGE FORM – SUSPENSIONS
- SUSPENSIONS – Suspensions are the biphasic liquid dosage form of medicaments in which the finely divided solid particles ranging from 0.5 to 5.0 micron are dispersed in a liquid or semisolid vehicle.
The solid particles act as a disperse phase whereas liquid vehicle acts as the continuous phase. Suspensions are generally taken orally or by parenteral route. They are also used for external applications.
- FLOCCULATED AND NON- FLOCCULATED SUSPENSIONS– The suspensions are said to be flocculated when the individual particles are in contact with each other and form a network-like structure. Whereas in the case of non- flocculated suspensions, the individual particle exists as a separate entity.
BIPHASIC LIQUID DOSAGE FORM – EMULSIONS
- EMULSIONS – An emulsion is a biphasic liquid preparation containing two immiscible liquids, one of which is dispersed as minute globules into the other. The liquid which is converted into minute globule is called the dispersed phase and the liquid in which the globules are dispersed is called the continuous phase.
- CRACKING – Cracking means the separation of two layers of dispersing and continuous phase, due to the coalescence of disperse phase globules which are difficult to redisperse by shaking.
- CREAMING – Creaming may be defined as the upward movement of dispersed globules to form a thick layer at the surface of the emulsion. Creaming is a temporary phase because it can be re-distributed by mild shaking or stirring to get again a homogeneous emulsion.
- PHASE INVERSION – Phase inversion means the change of one type of emulsion into the other type i.e., oil in water emulsion changes into the water in oil type and vice versa.
SEMISOLID DOSAGE FORMS – OINTMENTS, PASTES AND JELLIES
- SEMISOLID DOSAGE FORM – Semisolid dosage forms are mainly meant for external application e.g. ointments, creams, jellies and pastes etc.
- OINTMENTS – Ointments are semi-solid preparations meant for external application to the skin or mucous membrane. They usually contain medicaments or medicaments dissolved, suspended or emulsified in an ointment base.
They may contain a suitable antimicrobial preservative. The ointments are mainly used as protective or emollient for the skin.
- OINTMENT BASES – The ointments base is that substance or part of an ointment, which serves as carrier or vehicle for the medicaments.
- PASTES – Pastes are semi-solid preparations intended for external application to the skin. The pastes are generally very thick and stiff. They do not melt at ordinary temperature and thus form a protective coating over the area where they are applied.
- JELLIES – Jellies are transparent or translucent non-greasy, semisolid preparations meant for external application to the skin or mucous membrane. they may be prepared from natural gums,
such as tragacanth, pectin, sodium alginates or from synthetic derivatives of natural substances such as methylcellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose.
- POULTICES – Poultices are soft, viscous wet masses of solid substances applied to the skin for their fomentation action in order to provide relief from pain or reduce inflammation or to act as a counter-irritant. Poultices are also known as cataplasms.
SEMISOLID DOSAGE FROMS – SUPPOSITORIES AND PESSARIES
- SUPPOSITORIES – Suppositories are solid dosage form of medicaments for insertion into body cavities other than the mouth. They may be inserted into rectum, vagina or nasal cavity. The medicaments are incorporated into the suppository base and the product is formulated in such a way that they will either melt or dissolve in the body cavity fluid to release the medicaments. Suppositories are available in different shapes, sizes and weights.
- PESSARIES – They are meant for introduction into the vagina. They are larger than rectal suppositories and vary in weight from 4 to 8 gramme or more. The pessaries may be conical, wedge-shaped or rod-shaped. Nowadays special-shaped suppositories are manufactured and are supplied with applicators to facilitate insertion into the vagina.
- DISPLACEMENT VALUES – Displacement value is defined as the quantity of the drug which displaces one part of the base.
DENTAL AND COSMETIC PREPARATIONS
- COSMETICS– According to Drugs and Cosmetics Act and Rules, 1945, cosmetics is defined as an item intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled or sprayed on, introduced into or otherwise applied to the human body or any part thereof for cleansing, protecting, beautifying, promoting attractiveness or altering the appearance.
- DENTIFRICES – Dentifrices are the preparations meant to be applied to the teeth with a toothbrush for the purpose of cleaning the accessible surface of the teeth.
- COLD CREAMS – Cold cream is an emulsion, which when applied on the skin, a cooling effect is produced due to slow evaporation of water present in the emulsion. They are generally prepared by emulsification of oils and water.
- CLEANSING CREAMS – Cleansing creams are used to remove facial makeup. They are also used to improve the healthy and good appearance of the skin which requires frequent cleansing to remove grime, sebum and other secretions, dead cells and applied makeup.
- VANISHING CREAMS – These are the oil-in-water type of emulsions which when applied to the skin leave an almost invisible layer on it. Hence they are called vanishing cream.
- FOUNDATION CREAM – These are designed to be applied to the face after cleaning to provide a smooth emollient base for the application of facial makeup.
- MOISTURISING CREAM – These creams are designed to be left on the skin for several hours. These creams are applied at night. Their application during day time is not very useful.
- SHAMPOOS – Shampoos may be defined as a preparation containing surface-active agents which are used to remove dirt, grease and debris from the hair, scalp and other parts of the body without affecting the natural gloss of hair.
- EPILATION – Epilation means the uprooting of intact hair mechanically by plucking or embedding in adherent material such as wax, rosin etc.
- DEPILATION – When the hair is removed by chemical methods without injury to the skin, it is known as depilation.
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Note- All of the above information are gathered from RM MEHTA book of pharmaceutics second
(reference =RM MEHTA BOOK)
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