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PHARMACOGNOSY DRUGS CHART

the most typical  subject is pharmacognosy and most of the questions are came from drugs/about drugs so to make easier we present you pharmacognosy drugs chart in easy form with uses and synonames.

1. LAXATIVE

COMMON NAMESYNONYMOFFICIAL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE CONSTITUENTSUSES
AloeMusabbarAloe species liliaceaeAloin,(barbaloin) beta-barbaloinInternally as purgative, externally in skin disease.
RhubarbRheumRheum species polygonaceaeFree anthraquinonesPurgative
IspaghulaIshabgulPlantago ovata plantaginaceaePolysaccharide yields L-arabiose, rhamnose, D-galactose and D-galacturonic acid.Bulk, laxative in chronic constipation
SennaTinnevelly senna alexanderian sennaCassia angustifolia, cassia acutifolia, leguminosaeSennoside A , sennoside B, sennoside C, sennoside D, aloe emodin, chrysophanollaxativeaxative

2.CARDIOTONICS

COMMON NAMESYNONYMOFFICIAL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE CONSTITUENTSUSES
DigitalisFoxglove leavesDigitalis purpurea scrophulariaceaePrimary glycosides are purpurea glycoside A & B, secondary glycosides are digitoxin, gitoxin and digoxinCongestive cardiac failure, atrial flutter, atrial fibrillation.
Arjuna darkArjunaTerminalia arjuna combretaceaeTriterpenoidal saponins tannisDiuretic to decrease blood pressure and heart rate.

3.CARMINATIVE AND GI REGULATORS

COMMON NAMESYNONYMOFFICIAL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE CONSTITUENTSUSES
CoriandercoriandrumCoriandrum sativum umbelliferaeCoriandrol, pinene, geraniol, borneol. Flavouring agent, carminative, spice.
FennelFoeniculumFoeniculum vulgare umbelliferaeChief constituents thymol.Carminative, flavouring agent.
AjowanAjwianTrachyspermum ammi umbelliferaeVolatile oil contains thymolCarminative, spice
cardamonCardamoni fructusElettaria cardamomum var. minuscula zingiberaceaeIt contains cineole and terpinyl acetateCarminative, flavouring agent.
GingerGingerZingiber officinale zingiberaceaeVolatile oil contains zaingiberene, zingiberolStimulant, carminative, flavouring agent.
Black pepperpepperPiper nigram piperaceaeIt contains terpenes beta-pinene and phellanereneInternally as stimulant
Asafoetida nutmegmyristicaMyristica fragran s myristicaceaeMyristicin, elemicinCarminative , externally in rheumatism
cinnamoncinnamonCinnamomum zeylanicum lauraceaeIt contain cinnamic aldehyde and eugenol phlobatanninsCarminative, flavouring agent
clovecaryophyllumEugenia caryophyllus myrtaceaeIt contain eugenol vanillinCarminative, flavouring agent antiseptic dental pain

4. ASTRINGNENTS

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COMMON NAMESYNONYMOFFICAL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE CONSTITUENTSUSES
Catechu /black catechuCatechu nigrumAcacia catechu leguminosaeCatechin, catechutannic acidAstringent, in diarrhoea
Pale catechuGambier catechuUncaria gambier RubiaceaeCatechin, catechutannic and gambier fluorescinBleeding of gums

5.DRUG ACTING ON NERVOUS SYSTEM

COMMON NAMESYNONYMOFFICAIL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE CONSTITUENTSUSES
HyoscymushenbaneHyoscymus niger solanaceaeHyoscyamine and traces hyoscineCerebral and spinal sedative
belladonnaDeadly nightshadeAtropa belladonna solanaceaeHyoscyamine, hyoscine, atropineRespiratory sedative. Spasmodytic cough. Externally as local anaesthetic
AconiteRadix aconitiAconitum napellus renunculaceaeAconitine, picraconitine, aconine, mesaconitine hypaconitine and neopallineNeuralgia, rheumatism(externally)
EphedraMa haungEphedra spp.gnetaceaeEphedrin, pseudoephedrine, N-methyl ephedrine and Nor-d-ephedrieneActs on C.N.S as sympathomimetic
OpiumOpiumPapaver somniferum papaveracea25 alkaloids morphine, codeine, thebaine, papaverine, narcotineHypnotic, sedative habit forming so not used now a days
CannabisIndian hempCannabis sativa cannabinaceaeTetrahydrocannabinol cannabinol, cannobigerol, cannabidiol, cannabidiotic acid.Sedative, in hysteria, spasmodic cough habit forming so not used now a days
Nax-vomicaSemina strychniStrychnos nuxvomica loeganiaceaeStrychnine, brucineBitte stomachic, excites the motor nerves lead to convulsions.

6.ANTIHYPERTENSIVE

COMMON NAMESYNONYMOFFICIAL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE CONSTITUENTSUSES
RaulwolfiaIndian snake rootRauwolfia serpentine apocyanaceaeReserpine ajmaline, ajamalicine, serpentininePsychotic disorders and as anti hypertensive traquillizer

7.ANTITUSSIVES

COMMON NAMESYNONYMOFFICIAL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE CONSTITUENTSUSES
VasakaAdhatodaAdhatoda vasica acanthaceaeVasicine vasicinoneVasicine is abortifacient vasicinene is bronchodilator
Tolu balsamBalsamum tolutanumMyroxylon balsamum leguminosaeToluresinotanmol cinnamate and benzoate, benzyl cinnamate, bezoic acid , cinnamic acid, vanillin etc Expectorant flavouring agent in medicinal syrup
TulsiSecred basilOcimum sanctum labiataeEugenol, methyl eugenol, caryophyllinExpectorant, aromatic, carminative, antibacterial,antiprotozoal

8.ANTIRHEUMATICS

COMMON NAMESYNONYMOFFICIAL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE CONSTITUENTSUSES
ColchicumColchici cormusColchicum autumnale liliaceaeColchicine demecolcinePain and inflammation of acute gout, colchicine is tumour inhibitory in nature
guggalBalsamoderdron mukulCommiphora mukal burseraceaeImportant constituents are 2-guggulsterone, guggulsterol 1 and 2,3.Anti inflammatory, hypo-lipidimic now a days tried in diabetes and hypertension

9.ANTITUMOUR

COMMON NAMESYNONYMOFFICIAL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE CONSTITUENTSUSES
VincacatharanthusCatharanthus roseus apocyanaceaeVincristine, vinblastine, ajmalicine serpentineHodgkin disease, choriocarcinoma in leukemia

10.ANTILEPROTICS

COMMON NAMESYNONYMOFFICIAL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE CONSTITUENTSUSES
Chaulmoogra oilHydnocarpus oilHydnocarpus wightiana flacourtiaceae, Oil contains acids like hydnocarpic acid, chaulmoogric acidantileprotic

11.ANTIDIABETIC

COMMON NAMESYNONYMOFFICIAL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE CONSTITUENTSUSES
PterocarpusKino vijayasarPterocarupus marsupium lehuminosaeLiquiritigenin isoliquiritigenin marsupolHypoglycemic agent in diabetes, gum is useful in dysentery
Gymnema sylvestregurmarGymnema sylvestre asclepiadaceaeGymnemic acidIn diabetes. In Ayurveda as stomachic, stimulant

12.DIURETICS

COMMON NAMESYNONYMOFFICIAL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE INGREDIENTSUSES
GokharuChota gokharuTribulus terrestris zygophyllaceaeSaponins on hydrolysis yiels diosgenin, gitogenin ruscogeninDrug is diuretic so usedful in nephritis and kidney stone gout and painful micturition
PunarnavahogweedBoerhaavia diffusa nyctaginaceaePunarnavine urolic acid stearic acidDiuretic, anti inflammatory

13.ANTIDYSENTERIES

COMMON NAMESYNONYMOFFICIAL SOURCE/FAMILYOFFICIAL SOURCE/FAMILYUSES
IpecacuanhaipecacCephailis ipecacuanha RubiaceaeEmetine, cephaeline. Psychotrine, ipecosideAmoebic dysentery

14.ANTISEPTIC AND DISINFECTANT

COMMON NAMESYNONYMOFFICAIL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE INGREDIENTSUSES
MyrrhmyrrhaCommiphora molmol burseraceaeOil contains terpenes ester, cuminic aldehyde resin contains alpha, beta and gyama commiphoric acidsAntiseptic, disinfectant mouth wash
BenzoinGum benzoin styraceaeStyrax benzoin styraceaeFree balsamic acid like cinnamic acid, benzoic acid.Antiseptic, disinfectant, expectorant
NimNeemAzadirachta indica meliaceaeAzadirachtin azadirinin azadironeBitter tonic, astringent, skin diseases insectiside, pesticide
curcumaIndian saffronCurcuma longa zingiberaceaeCurcumins like curcumin 1 and 2,3. Volatile lil contains tumerone and zingiberoneColouring agent. Antiseptic anti-inflammatory

15. ANTIMALERIAL

COMMON NAMESYNONYMOFFICIAL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE INGREDIENTSUSES
ChinchonaPeruvian barkCinchona species RubiaceaeQuinine, quinidine, cinchonineAntimalarial, bitter tonic, stomachic.

16.OXITOCICS

COMMON NAMESYNONYMOFFICIAL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE INGREDIENTSUSES
ErgotRye ergotClaviceps purpurea clavicipitaceaeWater soluble ergometrine type. Water insoluble ergotoxine type of alkaloidsOxytocic to stimulate uterine muscle to induce delivery

17.VITAMINS

COMMON NAMESYNONYMOFFICIAL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE INGREDIENTSUSES
Shark liver oilOleum selachideLiver of fish
Hypoprion brevirostris
braevirodstris
Oil contains vitamin a and glycerides of saturated and unsaturated fatty acidsNutritive and tonic,
xerophthalmia
AmlaEmbelicaEmbelica officinalis
euphorbiaceae
Vitamin cScurvy, antifungal , anti viral

18.ENZYMES

COMMON NAMESYNONYMOFFICAL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE INGREDIENTSUSES
PapayapapitaCarica papaya caricaceaepapainProteolytic enzyme
diastasediastaseBarley grains
graminae
diastaseStarch digesting enzyme
YeastYeastSaccharomyces cerevisae
Saccharomycetaceae
B-group vitamin namely aneurine, ribofllavine, nicotine, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid.vitamin supplement
AsafoetidaasafetidaFerula foetida
umbelleferae
Oil contains organic disulphide resin contain asaresinol ferulate,free ferulic acidAntispasmodic laxative

19.PERFUMES AND FLAVOURING AGENT

COMMON NAMESYNONYMOFFICIAL SOURCE/FAMIKLYACTIVE INGREDIENTSUSES
Peppermint oilMentha piperita oilMentha piperita labiataeIt contains free menthol, menthofuran, jasmine, ester of menthol, piperine, piperitoneFlavouring agent in perfumey, aromatic, carminative, counter-irritant, carminative.
Lemon oilOil limonisCitrus limon RutaceaeOil contains citral, geranyl and linanyl acetateAromatic, carminative, flavouring agent.
Orange oilOil aurantiaCitrus sinensis RutaceaeOil contains limonine elixitsFlavouring agent in aromatic
Lemon grass oilIndian melissaCymbopogan citratus graminaeOil contains terpene aldehyde citralAlpha-inones is made from citral is important flavouring agent.
Sandal woodSandal woodSantalum album santalaceaeOil contains free alcohols, alpha and beta santols, alpha and beta santalenes, santalone and santenone.Used in cosmetics, perfumer, medicinally as a stimulate.

20.MISCELLANEOUS

COMMON NAMESYNONYMOFFICIAL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE INGREDIENTSUSES
liquoriceGlycyrrhizaGlycyrrhiza glabra
leguminosae
Glycyrrhizin which yields glycyrrhetinic acid it also contains chalcone glycoside isoliquiritinExpectorant, demulscent, laxative, antipeptic ulcer.
GarlicLehsunAllium sativum
liliaceae
It contains allicin allin and a polysulphideAntibacterial, GIT, stimulant
picrorhiza`kutkiPicrorhiza kurroa scrophulariaceaeIrodoid type of glycosides consist of picrorrhizia picroride A and kutkosideBitter tonic, liver disorders, in jaundice
Diescorea steridalYamsDioscorea deltoida
dioscoreaceae
Diosgenin mainly traces of heccogeninPrecursor for making steroidal drugs, in Ayurveda as fish and lice poision.
LinseedFlax seedLinum usitatissimum
Linaceae
Oil contains unsaturated acids cyanogenetic glycosides, linamarin.Demulscent, laxative, externally in poultices
shatavariatavariAsparagus racemosus
Liliaceae
Saponin A4, A5, A6 and A8 sarasapo-genin from hydrolysis of A4 saponin.Diuretic, aphrodiasic, nutritive, tonic
ShankhushankhapushpiEvolvulus alsinoidesbetainBitter tonic, antihelmintic
PushpiconvolvulaceaeEvolvineNervine tonic, nervous debility
PyrethrumInsect flowerChrysanthemum cinerarifolium compositaeTerpenes,
Cinerin 1 and 2
Jasmolin 1 and 2
Pyrethrin 1 and 2 insetiside against flies, insects,mosquitoes.
tobaccoTambakuNicotiana tobacum
Solanaceae
Nicotine, Nor-nicotine, anabasine, nicoteineInsectiscide, fish poison narcotic, sedative, emetic

 

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