November 13, 2019

PHARMACOGNOSY DRUGS CHART

the most typical  subject is pharmacognosy and most of the questions are came from drugs/about drugs so to make easier we present you pharmacognosy drugs chart in easy form with uses and synonames.

1. LAXATIVE

COMMON NAMESYNONYMOFFICIAL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE CONSTITUENTSUSES
Senna Tinnevelly senna alexanderian senna Cassia angustifolia, cassia acutifolia, leguminosaeSennoside A , sennoside B, sennoside C, sennoside D, aloe emodin, chrysophanol laxativeaxative
AloeMusabbarAloe species liliaceaeAloin,(barbaloin) beta-barbaloinInternally as purgative, externally in skin disease.
Rhubarb Rheum Rheum species polygonaceaeFree anthraquinonesPurgative
Ispaghula Ishabgul Plantago ovata plantaginaceaePolysaccharide yields L-arabiose, rhamnose, D-galactose and D-galacturonic acid.Bulk, laxative in chronic constipation

2.CARDIOTONICS

COMMON NAMESYNONYM OFFICIAL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE CONSTITUENTSUSES
Digitalis Foxglove leavesDigitalis purpurea scrophulariaceae Primary glycosides are purpurea glycoside A & B, secondary glycosides are digitoxin, gitoxin and digoxinCongestive cardiac failure, atrial flutter, atrial fibrillation.
Arjuna darkArjuna Terminalia arjuna combretaceaeTriterpenoidal saponins tannisDiuretic to decrease blood pressure and heart rate.

3.CARMINATIVE AND GI REGULATORS

COMMON NAMESYNONYMOFFICIAL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE CONSTITUENTSUSES
Coriander coriandrumCoriandrum sativum umbelliferaeCoriandrol, pinene, geraniol, borneol. Flavouring agent, carminative, spice.
Fennel Foeniculum Foeniculum vulgare umbelliferaeChief constituents thymol.Carminative, flavouring agent.
AjowanAjwian Trachyspermum ammi umbelliferaeVolatile oil contains thymol Carminative, spice
cardamonCardamoni fructusElettaria cardamomum var. minuscula zingiberaceaeIt contains cineole and terpinyl acetateCarminative, flavouring agent.
Ginger Ginger Zingiber officinale zingiberaceaeVolatile oil contains zaingiberene, zingiberol Stimulant, carminative, flavouring agent.
Black pepper pepperPiper nigram piperaceaeIt contains terpenes beta-pinene and phellanereneInternally as stimulant
Asafoetida nutmegmyristicaMyristica fragran s myristicaceaeMyristicin, elemicinCarminative , externally in rheumatism
cinnamoncinnamonCinnamomum zeylanicum lauraceaeIt contain cinnamic aldehyde and eugenol phlobatanninsCarminative, flavouring agent
clovecaryophyllumEugenia caryophyllus myrtaceaeIt contain eugenol vanillinCarminative, flavouring agent antiseptic dental pain

4. ASTRINGNENTS

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COMMON NAMESYNONYMOFFICAL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE CONSTITUENTSUSES
Catechu /black catechuCatechu nigrumAcacia catechu leguminosaeCatechin, catechutannic acidAstringent, in diarrhoea
Pale catechuGambier catechuUncaria gambier Rubiaceae Catechin, catechutannic and gambier fluorescinBleeding of gums

5.DRUG ACTING ON NERVOUS SYSTEM

COMMON NAMESYNONYMOFFICAIL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE CONSTITUENTSUSES
Hyoscymus henbaneHyoscymus niger solanaceaeHyoscyamine and traces hyoscineCerebral and spinal sedative
belladonnaDeadly nightshadeAtropa belladonna solanaceaeHyoscyamine, hyoscine, atropineRespiratory sedative. Spasmodytic cough. Externally as local anaesthetic
Aconite Radix aconitiAconitum napellus renunculaceaeAconitine, picraconitine, aconine, mesaconitine hypaconitine and neopallineNeuralgia, rheumatism(externally)
Ephedra Ma haungEphedra spp.gnetaceaeEphedrin, pseudoephedrine, N-methyl ephedrine and Nor-d-ephedrieneActs on C.N.S as sympathomimetic
Opium Opium Papaver somniferum papaveracea25 alkaloids morphine, codeine, thebaine, papaverine, narcotineHypnotic, sedative habit forming so not used now a days
Cannabis Indian hempCannabis sativa cannabinaceaeTetrahydrocannabinol cannabinol, cannobigerol, cannabidiol, cannabidiotic acid.Sedative, in hysteria, spasmodic cough habit forming so not used now a days
Nax-vomicaSemina strychniStrychnos nuxvomica loeganiaceaeStrychnine, brucineBitte stomachic, excites the motor nerves lead to convulsions.

6.ANTIHYPERTENSIVE

COMMON NAMESYNONYMOFFICIAL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE CONSTITUENTSUSES
Raulwolfia Indian snake rootRauwolfia serpentine apocyanaceaeReserpine ajmaline, ajamalicine, serpentininePsychotic disorders and as anti hypertensive traquillizer

7.ANTITUSSIVES

COMMON NAMESYNONYMOFFICIAL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE CONSTITUENTSUSES
VasakaAdhatoda Adhatoda vasica acanthaceaeVasicine vasicinoneVasicine is abortifacient vasicinene is bronchodilator
Tolu balsam Balsamum tolutanumMyroxylon balsamum leguminosaeToluresinotanmol cinnamate and benzoate, benzyl cinnamate, bezoic acid , cinnamic acid, vanillin etc Expectorant flavouring agent in medicinal syrup
Tulsi Secred basilOcimum sanctum labiataeEugenol, methyl eugenol, caryophyllinExpectorant, aromatic, carminative, antibacterial,antiprotozoal

8.ANTIRHEUMATICS

COMMON NAMESYNONYMOFFICIAL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE CONSTITUENTSUSES
Colchicum Colchici cormusColchicum autumnale liliaceaeColchicine demecolcinePain and inflammation of acute gout, colchicine is tumour inhibitory in nature
guggalBalsamoderdron mukulCommiphora mukal burseraceaeImportant constituents are 2-guggulsterone, guggulsterol 1 and 2,3.Anti inflammatory, hypo-lipidimic now a days tried in diabetes and hypertension

9.ANTITUMOUR

COMMON NAMESYNONYMOFFICIAL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE CONSTITUENTS USES
VincacatharanthusCatharanthus roseus apocyanaceaeVincristine, vinblastine, ajmalicine serpentineHodgkin disease, choriocarcinoma in leukemia

10.ANTILEPROTICS

COMMON NAME SYNONYMOFFICIAL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE CONSTITUENTSUSES
Chaulmoogra oilHydnocarpus oilHydnocarpus wightiana flacourtiaceae, Oil contains acids like hydnocarpic acid, chaulmoogric acidantileprotic

11.ANTIDIABETIC

COMMON NAMESYNONYMOFFICIAL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE CONSTITUENTSUSES
PterocarpusKino vijayasarPterocarupus marsupium lehuminosaeLiquiritigenin isoliquiritigenin marsupolHypoglycemic agent in diabetes, gum is useful in dysentery
Gymnema sylvestregurmarGymnema sylvestre asclepiadaceaeGymnemic acidIn diabetes. In Ayurveda as stomachic, stimulant

12.DIURETICS

COMMON NAME SYNONYMOFFICIAL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE INGREDIENTSUSES
Gokharu Chota gokharu Tribulus terrestris zygophyllaceaeSaponins on hydrolysis yiels diosgenin, gitogenin ruscogeninDrug is diuretic so usedful in nephritis and kidney stone gout and painful micturition
Punarnava hogweedBoerhaavia diffusa nyctaginaceaePunarnavine urolic acid stearic acid Diuretic, anti inflammatory

13.ANTIDYSENTERIES

COMMON NAMESYNONYMOFFICIAL SOURCE/FAMILYOFFICIAL SOURCE/FAMILYUSES
IpecacuanhaipecacCephailis ipecacuanha RubiaceaeEmetine, cephaeline. Psychotrine, ipecosideAmoebic dysentery

14.ANTISEPTIC AND DISINFECTANT

COMMON NAMESYNONYMOFFICAIL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE INGREDIENTS USES
Myrrh myrrhaCommiphora molmol burseraceaeOil contains terpenes ester, cuminic aldehyde resin contains alpha, beta and gyama commiphoric acidsAntiseptic, disinfectant mouth wash
BenzoinGum benzoin styraceaeStyrax benzoin styraceaeFree balsamic acid like cinnamic acid, benzoic acid.Antiseptic, disinfectant, expectorant
Nim Neem Azadirachta indica meliaceaeAzadirachtin azadirinin azadironeBitter tonic, astringent, skin diseases insectiside, pesticide
curcumaIndian saffronCurcuma longa zingiberaceaeCurcumins like curcumin 1 and 2,3. Volatile lil contains tumerone and zingiberoneColouring agent. Antiseptic anti-inflammatory

15. ANTIMALERIAL

COMMON NAMESYNONYMOFFICIAL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE INGREDIENTSUSES
ChinchonaPeruvian bark Cinchona species RubiaceaeQuinine, quinidine, cinchonineAntimalarial, bitter tonic, stomachic.

16.OXITOCICS

COMMON NAME SYNONYMOFFICIAL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE INGREDIENTSUSES
Ergot Rye ergot Claviceps purpurea clavicipitaceaeWater soluble ergometrine type. Water insoluble ergotoxine type of alkaloidsOxytocic to stimulate uterine muscle to induce delivery

17.VITAMINS

COMMON NAMESYNONYMOFFICIAL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE INGREDIENTSUSES
Shark liver oil Oleum selachideLiver of fish
Hypoprion brevirostris
braevirodstris
Oil contains vitamin a and glycerides of saturated and unsaturated fatty acidsNutritive and tonic,
xerophthalmia
Amla EmbelicaEmbelica officinalis
euphorbiaceae
Vitamin cScurvy, antifungal , anti viral

18.ENZYMES

COMMON NAMESYNONYMOFFICAL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE INGREDIENTS USES
PapayapapitaCarica papaya caricaceaepapainProteolytic enzyme
diastasediastaseBarley grains
graminae
diastaseStarch digesting enzyme
YeastYeastSaccharomyces cerevisae
Saccharomycetaceae
B-group vitamin namely aneurine, ribofllavine, nicotine, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid.vitamin supplement
AsafoetidaasafetidaFerula foetida
umbelleferae
Oil contains organic disulphide resin contain asaresinol ferulate,free ferulic acidAntispasmodic laxative

19.PERFUMES AND FLAVOURING AGENT

COMMON NAME SYNONYMOFFICIAL SOURCE/FAMIKLYACTIVE INGREDIENTS USES
Peppermint oil Mentha piperita oilMentha piperita labiataeIt contains free menthol, menthofuran, jasmine, ester of menthol, piperine, piperitoneFlavouring agent in perfumey, aromatic, carminative, counter-irritant, carminative.
Lemon oilOil limonisCitrus limon RutaceaeOil contains citral, geranyl and linanyl acetateAromatic, carminative, flavouring agent.
Orange oilOil aurantiaCitrus sinensis RutaceaeOil contains limonine elixits Flavouring agent in aromatic
Lemon grass oilIndian melissaCymbopogan citratus graminaeOil contains terpene aldehyde citralAlpha-inones is made from citral is important flavouring agent.
Sandal woodSandal wood Santalum album santalaceaeOil contains free alcohols, alpha and beta santols, alpha and beta santalenes, santalone and santenone.Used in cosmetics, perfumer, medicinally as a stimulate.

20.MISCELLANEOUS

COMMON NAMESYNONYMOFFICIAL SOURCE/FAMILYACTIVE INGREDIENTS USES
liquoriceGlycyrrhizaGlycyrrhiza glabra
leguminosae
Glycyrrhizin which yields glycyrrhetinic acid it also contains chalcone glycoside isoliquiritinExpectorant, demulscent, laxative, antipeptic ulcer.
Garlic LehsunAllium sativum
liliaceae
It contains allicin allin and a polysulphideAntibacterial, GIT, stimulant
picrorhiza `kutki Picrorhiza kurroa scrophulariaceaeIrodoid type of glycosides consist of picrorrhizia picroride A and kutkosideBitter tonic, liver disorders, in jaundice
Diescorea steridalYams Dioscorea deltoida
dioscoreaceae
Diosgenin mainly traces of heccogeninPrecursor for making steroidal drugs, in Ayurveda as fish and lice poision.
Linseed Flax seed Linum usitatissimum
Linaceae
Oil contains unsaturated acids cyanogenetic glycosides, linamarin.Demulscent, laxative, externally in poultices
shatavariatavariAsparagus racemosus
Liliaceae
Saponin A4, A5, A6 and A8 sarasapo-genin from hydrolysis of A4 saponin.Diuretic, aphrodiasic, nutritive, tonic
Shankhu shankhapushpiEvolvulus alsinoidesbetainBitter tonic, antihelmintic
PushpiconvolvulaceaeEvolvineNervine tonic, nervous debility
PyrethrumInsect flower Chrysanthemum cinerarifolium compositaeTerpenes,
Cinerin 1 and 2
Jasmolin 1 and 2
Pyrethrin 1 and 2 insetiside against flies, insects,mosquitoes.
tobaccoTambakuNicotiana tobacum
Solanaceae
Nicotine, Nor-nicotine, anabasine, nicoteineInsectiscide, fish poison narcotic, sedative, emetic

 

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