Tablet chapter notes
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DEFINITION– Tablets are the solid unit dosage form containing medicament or medicaments with or without excipient tablets are prepared by the compression method and hence called the compressed tablets.
ADVANTAGES OF TABLETS
- The tablets are easy to be administered.
- They are easy to be dispensed.
- These are more stable dosage form.
- They maintain the accuracy of dosage.
- They are the lightest of the most compact of all dosage form.
- These are on the economical dosage form.
- They have longer expiry period due to lower moisture content.
DISADVANTAGES OF TABLETS
- Difficult to swallow in case of children and unconscious patient.
- Some drug resists compression into tablet form due to their amorphous nature or low-density character.
- Bioavailability of some drug may be low due to poor absorption from the gastric tract.
- Drug with poor wetting and slow dissolution p0roperties.
TYPES OF TABLETS Tablet chapter notes
Tablets are classified according to their route of administration
- Tablets ingested orally
- Compressed tablets
- Multiple compressed tablets
- Multilayered tablets
- Sustained action tablets
- Enteric-coated tablets
- Sugar-coated tablets
- Film-coated tablets
- Chewable tablets
- Tablets used in the oral cavity
- Buccal tablets
- Sublingual tablets
- Lozenge tablets
- Dental cone
- Tablets used to be administered by other routes
- Implantation tablets
- Vaginal tablets
- Tablets used to prepare solutions
- Effervescent tablets
- Dispensing tablets
- Hypodermic tablets
- Tablet triturates
TABLET INGESTED ORALLY
A majority of the tablets manufactured are ingested orally.
- These tablets are uncoated and made by compression at granules.
- These tablets are usually intended to provide rapid disintegration and drug release.
- These tablets contain a water-soluble drug.
- Which after swallowing get disintegrated in the stomach.
- Absorbed in the G.I.T.
- And distribute in the whole body.
MULTIPLE COMPRESSED TABLETS ( M.C.T)
1)These tablets are compressed tablets made by more than one compression cycle.
2) They are usually prepared to separate physically or chemically incompatible ingredients.
3) Produce repeat or prolong the action of the drug.
4) Avoid the incompatibility the ingredients.
5) A special type of tablets making machine is used which provides two compressions.
- These tablets consist of two or more layer of material compressed in the same tablets.
- The colour of each layer may be the same or different.
- The tablets having layers of different colour are known as multicoloured tablets.
- The tablets are prepared to separate incompatible ingredients physically.
SUSTAINED ACTION TABLETS
- These tablets are used to get a sustained action of medicaments.
- Prolong action tablet, repeat action tablets.
ENTERIC COATED TABLETS
- An enteric coating is a polymer barrier applied to oral medication.
- That prevent its dissolution or disintegration in the stomach.
- After swallowing to bypass the stomach and get disintegrated in the intestine only.
SUGAR COATED TABLETS
- The compressed tablets having a sugar coating are called as sugar-coated tablets.
- Sugarcoating is to avoid the bitter and unpleasant odour and the test of medicaments.
- The compressed tablets having a film coating of some polymer substance.
- Such as hydroxypropyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose.
- Film-coated tablets protect the medicaments from atmospheric effect.
- Tablets are chewed in the mouth and broken into smaller pieces.
- In this way, disintegration time is reduced.
- And the rate of absorption of the medicaments is increased.
2)TABLETS USED IN ORAL CAVITY
- These tablets are to be placed in the buccal pouch or
- Between the gums and lips or cheek.
- Tablets dissolve or disintegrate slowly and are absorbed directly without passing into the alimentary canal
- These tablets are to be placed under the tongue.
- They dissolve or disintegrate quickly and are absorbed directly without passing into G.I.T.
LOZENGE TABLETS AND TROCHES
- These tablets are used to local effect in the mouth or throat.
- 2) these tablets are commonly used to treat a sore throat or
- To control coughing in common cold.
- These are relatively minor compressed tablets placing them in the empty sockets after tooth extraction.
- They prevent the multiplication of bacteria in the socket.
3)TABLETS ADMINISTERED BY OTHER ROUTES
- These tablets are placed under the skin or inserted subcutaneously by means of minor surgical operation and slowly absorbed.
- These tablets are dissolves slowly in the vaginal cavity.
4)TABLETS ARE USED TO PREPARE SOLUTION
- These tablets when added in water to produce effervescence.
- So they dissolved rapidly in water due to chemical reaction.
- These tablets are to be protected from atmospheric moisture during storage.
- This type of tablets are intended to be added a given volume of water
- To produce a solution of a given concentration
- These tablets are highly toxic if taken orally by mistake
- These are compressed tablets which are composed of one or more drug with readily water-soluble drug
- These tablets are dissolved in sterile water and
- Administered by parenteral route.
- These are small tablets usually cylindrical moulded or compressed.
- Certain potent medicament with diluents.
MANUFACTURING OF COMPRESSED TABLETS
Following steps are involved during tablet manufacturing
- Weighing the ingredients
- Mixing the powder ingredients and excipients
- Converting the mixed ingredients into granules.
- Compression of granules into tablets
- Coating of tablets
- Quality control of tablets
API + EXCIPIENTS—POWDER BLWND —–GRANULES——TABLETS
PREPARATION OF GRANULES
Granules can be prepared by the following method
- MOIST GRANULATION
- DRY GRANULATION
- GRANULES BY PRELIMINARY COMPRESSION
MOIST GRANULATION METHOD
- This is the most widely used method for preparing granules
- The powder medicament along with other excipients with a sufficient quantity of granulating agent
- And prepare coherent mass
- Coherent mass is passed through sieve no 8 or 10.
- The wet granules are spread in trays and dried at 60 D/C in a hot air oven
- The dried granules are pass through sieve number 20.
- And collect the granules of uniform size
- And then lubricating agent, any volatile substance and remaining part of the disintegrating agent are mixed
- And then these granules are ready to be compressed.
- These are certain medicaments which are available in crystalline form
- Or in the form of granules having its own binding property.
- Such medicaments are passed through sieve no.20 or specified sieve.
- And then mixed with any additional excipient.
- This method is used for making tablet of aspirin, sodium bromide.
3)GRANULES BY PRELIMINARY COMPRESSION
1) This method is also known as slugging method
2) This method is used in those cases where the medicaments are unstable in the presence of moisture
3) powder is compressed into a larger tablet
4) These tablets are broken into small pieces which are passed through a specified sieve to collect.
5) And then add lubricating agent and disintegrating agent are mixed with these granules
6) And compression the tablet in a machine.
EXCIPIENTS USED IN FORMULATION OF TABLETS
- GRANULATING AGENTS
- BINDING AGENTS
- DISINTEGRATING AGENTS
- COLOURING AGENTS
WRITTEN BY: MS. PRATIBHA S. SHELKE ( M.PHARM)
PUBLISHED BY WWW.PHARMAMAD.COM
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