The urinary system consists of two kidneys, two ureters, one urinary bladder, and one urethra.it is one of the most important systems of our body, that helps to filter water and other substance from our body.it is very important to know how the urinary system works.so let’s study about urinary system.
Nephrology is the scientific study of the anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology of the kidney.
UROLOGY – the branch of medicine that deals with the male and female urinary system and the male reproductive system is called urology.
A physician who specializes in the urology branch of medicine is called a urologist.
The function of the urinary system
1) Kidney regulates blood volume and composition help to regulate blood pressure, PH, and glucose level, produces two hormones (calcitriol and erythropoietin) and excrete waste in the urine.
2) Ureters transport urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
3) urinary bladder stores urine and expel it into the urethra.
4) Urethra discharges urine from the body.
The function of the kidney
List the function of the kidney
The function of kidneys includes the following.
1)REGULATION OF BLOOD IONIC COMPOSITION.
Kidney help to regulate the blood level f several ions,such as sodium ion(na+),potassium ion(k+),calcium ion(ca2+),chloride ion(cl-) and phosphate ion.
2)REGULATION OF BLOOD PH.
The kidney excretes a variable amount of hydrogen(h+) ion into the urine.
And conserve bicarbonate ion, which an imp buffer of h+ in blood both
these activities help regulate blood PH.
3)REGULATION OF BLOOD VOLUME.
The kidney adjusts blood volume by conserving or eliminating water in
urine. increase volume-increase blood pressure; decrease blood volume decrease
5)REGULATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE.
The kidney helps to regulate blood pressure by secreting the enzyme
Renin activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway.
6)PRODUCTION OF HORMONE.
The kidney produces two hormones
a)calcitriol-active form of the vitamin.d, help to regulate calcium homeostasis.
b)Erythropiotin-stimulate the production of red blood cells.
7)REGULATION OF BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL
Like liver, kidney synthesis new glucose molecule and release into the blood
to help maintain a normal blood glucose level.
8)EXCRETION OF WASTE AND FOREIGN
The kidney helps excrete waste sub that has no useful function in the body.
ANATOMY AND HISTOLOGY OF THE KIDNEY.
1) The paired kidney are reddish in color.
2) Kidney is bean-shaped organs.
3) Location-just above the waist between the peritoneum and the
posterior wall of the abdomen.
4) Kidney located between the level of last thoracic and 3rd lumbar
5) Right kidney is slightly lower than the left.
EXTERNAL ANATOMY OF KIDNEY
A typical adult kidney-
1) Size;- 10-12cm long 5-7cm wide 3cm thick.
2)kidney has a mass of 135-150g.
-The concave medial border of each kidney faes vertebral column.
-Near the center of the concave border is an indentation called renal hilum.
Renal hilum through which ureter, nerve blood vessel, lymphatic
vessels emerge from the kidney.
3)kidney surrounded by three-layer.
Deep layer smooth, transport sheet of dense irregular connective tissue that
continuous with the outer coat of the uterus.
-it helps to maintain the shape of the kidney.
b)ADIPOSE CAPSULE-MIDDLE LAYER
-is a mass of fatty tissue.
It protects the kidney from trauma.
-Super facial layer
-thin layer of dense connective tissue.
-Nephron are functional units of kidneys.
-each nephron consists of two parts
a) renal corpuscle-blood plasma filters.
B)renal tubule-filtered fluid passes.
For the production of the urine; nephron, and collecting
ducts perform 3 basic processes.
In the first step of urine production water and most solutes in the blood plasma move
across the wall of the glomerular capsule and then into the renal tubule.
Filtered fluid flows through the renal tubule and through the collecting duct.
Tubule cells reabsorb 99% of filtered water and many useful solutes.
Water and solutes return into blood
(reabsorption means returns of a sub to the bloodstream)
-Filtered fluid flows through the renal tubules and collecting duct.
-Renal tubule and duct cell secrete other material, such as waste, drug and
excess ion into the fluid.
-Tubular secretion remove a sub from the blood.
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